Ethical Principles and Publication Policy

This statement is based on COPE’s Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors, Guidance from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
We accept all terms and conditions of COPE about plagiarism and in case, any attempt of plagiarism is brought to our attention accompanied by convincing evidence, we act based on flowcharts and workflows determined in COPE.
The production of an article in an associate audited journal is a fundamental building hinder in the improvement of a rational and regarded system of information. It is an immediate impression of the nature of crafted by the creators and the organizations that help them. Associate evaluated articles support and encapsulate the logical technique.
It is subsequently imperative to heaps of expected moral conduct for all gatherings associated with the demonstration of distributing: the creator, the journal manager, the companion commentator, the distributor, and the general public of society-claimed or supported journals.

Open Access Policy

This is an open-access journal, which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in the Journal of Surgery and Medicine (JOSAM) without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.

The BOAI arises from a meeting convened in Budapest by the Open Society Institute (OSI) on 1st – 2nd December 2001. The purpose of the meeting was to accelerate progress in the international effort to make research articles in all academic fields freely available on the Internet. The participants represented many points of view, many academic disciplines, many nations, and had experience with many of the ongoing initiatives that make up the open access movement. In Budapest, they explored how the separate initiatives could work together to achieve broader, deeper, and faster success. They explored the most effective and affordable strategies for serving the interests of research, researchers, and the institutions and societies that support research. Finally, they explored how OSI and other foundations could use their resources most productively to aid the transition to open access and to make open access publishing economically self-sustaining. The result is the Budapest Open Access Initiative. It is at once a statement of principle, a statement of strategy, and a statement of commitment.

All articles are free to read and reuse immediately upon publication under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 (CC BY NC ND) license. The license allows users to copy and distribute the article, provided this is not done for commercial purposes, and further does not permit distribution of the article if it is changed or edited in any way and provided the user gives appropriate credit (with a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI), provides a link to the license, and that the licensor is not represented as endorsing the use made of the work.

JOSAM aims to provide quality peer-reviewed, open access articles to thousands of physicians. The journals include papers on all the related areas of basic and clinical medicine.

Ethics Policy

Publication Ethics

The publication process at JOSAM is the basis of the improvement and dissemination of information objectively and respectfully. Therefore, the procedures in this process improve the quality of the studies. Peer-reviewed studies are the ones that support and materialize the scientific method. At this point, it is of utmost importance that all parties included in the publication process (authors, readers and researchers, publisher, reviewers, and editors) comply with the standards of ethical considerations. JOSAM expects all parties to hold the following ethical responsibilities.
All manuscripts must have an ethics code issued by the relevant ethical committee, and academic/research institute. Please kindly provide us with the ethics code of your manuscript.

The following ethical duties and responsibilities are written in the light of the guidelines and policies made by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

The editorial board of the journal reviewed the COPE Forum’s recommendations and has decided to continue to ask for ethics committee approval for every study submitted to the journal from all countries. If the study requires ethics approval, the authors will be asked to provide this. If they cannot provide ethics approval, the journal will reject the manuscript. If a study does not need ethics committee approval after review (If the author expresses that the study does not need ethics committee approval), the journal will ask authors for confirmation from an ethics committee or an independent committee indicating that the study does not need ethics committee approval according to the research integrity rules in their country.

Plagiarism Check

All submissions will be checked with plagiarism software (iThenticate: Plagiarism Detection Software, Turnitin, PaperPass Plagiarism Checker, Plagiarism Checker | Grammarly) in 2 stages: New Submission and After Acceptance from the editorial boards.

Ethical Responsibilities of Authors

The authors who submit their manuscripts to JOSAM are expected to comply with the following ethical responsibilities:

Author(s) must submit original studies to the journal. If they utilize or use other studies, they must make the in-text and end-text references accurately and completely.
People who have not contributed to the study at the intellectual level should not be indicated as authors.

If the manuscripts submitted to be published are subject to conflicting interests or relations, these must be explained.
During the review process of their manuscripts, author(s) may be asked to supply raw data. In such a case, the author(s) should be ready to submit such data and information to the editorial and scientific boards.
Author(s) should document that they have the participants' consent and the necessary permissions related to the sharing and research/analysis of the data that are used.

Author(s) should secure written consent from the patient; Due to its nature of being a detailed description of an individual patient’s clinical presentation and therapy, a case report almost always contains information that could be traced back to the individual in question.

Author(s) bears the responsibility to inform the editor of the journal or publisher if they happen to notice a mistake in their study which is in the early release or publication process and to cooperate with the editors during the correction or withdrawal process.

Authors cannot submit their studies to multiple journals simultaneously. Each submission can be made only after the previous one is completed. A study published in another journal cannot be submitted to JOSAM.

Author responsibilities are given in a study (e.g.: adding an author, reordering of author names) whose review process has begun cannot be changed.

The authors should accept to sign the following statement;

I certify that this assignment/report is my own work, based on my personal study and/or research and that I have acknowledged all material and sources used in its preparation, whether they be books, articles, reports, lecture notes, and any other kind of document, electronic or personal communication. I also certify that this assignment/report has not previously been submitted for assessment in any other unit, except where specific permission has been granted from all unit coordinators involved, or at any other time in this unit, and that I have not copied in part or whole or otherwise plagiarized the work of other students and/or persons.

Ethical Responsibilities of Editors

The editor and field editors of JOSAM should hold the following ethical responsibilities that are based on the guides "COPE Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors" and "COPE Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors" published as open Access by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

General duties and responsibilities

Editors are responsible for each study published in JOSAM. In this respect, the editors have the following roles and responsibilities:

Making efforts to meet the demand for knowledge from readers and authors,
Ensuring the continuous development of the journal,
Managing the procedures aimed to improve the quality of the studies published in the journal,
Supporting freedom of expression,
Ensuring academic integrity,
Following the procedures without making concessions on intellectual property rights and ethical standards,
Being transparent and clear in issues that require correction or explanation.
Relationships with Readers

Editors must make decisions taking into consideration the knowledge, skills, and expectations of all readers, researchers, and practitioners need. They must also ensure that the published studies contribute to the literature and be original. Moreover, they must take notice of the feedback received from researchers and practitioners and provide explanatory and informative feedback.

Relationships with Authors

Editors have the following duties and responsibilities in their relations with authors:

Editors must make positive or negative decisions about the studies' importance, originality, validity, clarity in wording, and suitability with the journal's aims and objectives.
Editors must accept the studies that are within the scope of the publication in the pre-review process unless there are serious problems with the study.
Editors must not ignore positive suggestions made by reviewers unless there are serious problems with the study.
New editors, unless there are serious issues, must not change the previous editor's decisions about the studies.
"Blind Review and Review Process" must be published and editors must prevent possible diversions in the defined processes.
Editors must publish an "Author's Guide" that is comprehensive enough in answering queries by authors. This guide must be updated regularly.
Authors should be provided with explanatory and informative feedback.
Relationships with Reviewers

Editors have the following duties and responsibilities in their relations with reviewers:

Editors must;

choose reviewers according to the subject of the study.
provide the information and guidance reviewers may need during the review process.
observe whether there are conflicting interests between reviewers and authors.
keep the identities of reviewers confidential in a blind review.
encourage the reviewers to review the manuscript in an unbiased, scientific, and objective tone.
evaluate reviewers regularly based on criteria like performance and timing.
develop practices and policies that increase the performance of reviewers.
take necessary steps to update the reviewer pool dynamically.
prevent unkind and unscientific reviews.
make effort to ensure the reviewer pool has a wide range.
Relationships with the Editorial Board

Editors must make sure that the members of the editorial board follow the procedures in accordance with the publication policies and guidelines, and must inform the members about the publication policies and developments. The editors must also train new members of the editorial board and provide the information they need.

Moreover, editors must

ensure that the members of the editorial board review the manuscripts in an unbiased and independent manner.
select the new members of the editorial board from those who can contribute to the journal and are qualified enough.
send manuscripts for review based on the subject of expertise of the editorial board members.
regularly communicate with the editorial board.
arrange regular meetings with the editorial board for the development of publication policies and the journal.
Relationships with the Journal's Owner and Publisher

The relationship between the editors and the publisher is based on the principle of the independence of editors. All the decisions made by the editors are independent of the publisher and the owner of the journal as required by the agreement made between editors and publishers.

Editorial and Blind Review Processes

Editors are obliged to comply with the policies of the "Blind Review and Review Process" stated in the journal's publication policies. Therefore, the editors ensure that each manuscript is reviewed in an unbiased, fair, and timely manner.

Quality Assurance

Editors must make sure that articles in the journal are published in accordance with the publication policies of the journal and international standards.

Protection of Personal Information

Editors are supposed to protect the personal information related to the subjects or visuals in the studies being reviewed and to reject the study if there is no documentation of the subjects' consent. Furthermore, editors are supposed to protect the personal information of the authors, reviewers, and readers.

Encouraging Ethical Rules and Protection of Human and Animal Rights

Editors are supposed to protect human and animal rights in the studies being reviewed and must reject the experimental studies which do not have ethical and related committee’s approval about the population given in such studies.

Precautions against possible Abuse and Malpractice

Editors are supposed to take precautions against possible abuse and malpractice. They must conduct investigations meticulously and objectively in determining and evaluating complaints about such situations. They must also share the results of the investigation.

Ensuring Academic Integrity

Editors must make sure that the mistakes, inconsistencies, or misdirections in studies are corrected quickly.

Protection of Intellectual Property Rights

Editors are responsible for protecting the intellectual property rights of all the articles published in the journal and the rights of the journal and author(s) in cases where these rights are violated. Also, editors must take the necessary precautions in order to prevent the content of all published articles from violating the intellectual property rights of other publications. 

Constructiveness and Openness to Discussion

Editors must

pay attention to the convincing criticism about studies published in the journal and must have a constructive attitude towards such criticism.
grant the right of reply to the author(s) of the criticized study.
not ignore or exclude the study that includes negative results.

Editors must examine the complaints from authors, reviewers, or readers and respond to them in an explanatory and enlightening manner.

Political and Economic Apprehensions

Neither the owner of the journal, publisher nor any other political or economical factor can influence the independent decision-making of the editors.

Conflicting Interests

Editors, acknowledging that there may be conflicting interests between reviewers and other editors, guarantee that the publication process of the manuscripts will be completed in an independent and unbiased manner

Ethical Responsibilities of Reviewers

The fact that all manuscripts are reviewed through "Blind Review" has a direct influence on the publication quality. This process ensures confidentiality by an objective and independent review. The review process at JOSAM is carried out on the principle of double-blind review. Reviewers do not contact the authors directly, and the reviews and comments are conveyed through the journal management system. In this process, the reviewer's views on the evaluation forms and full texts are assigned to the author(s) by the editor. Therefore, the reviewers doing review work for JOSAM are supposed to bear the following ethical responsibilities:

Reviewers must

agree to review only in their subject of expertise.
review in an unbiased and confidential manner.
inform the editor of the journal if they think that they encounter a conflict of interests and decline to review the manuscript during the review process.
dispose of the manuscripts they have reviewed in accordance with the principle of confidentiality after the review process. Reviewers can use the final versions of the manuscripts they have reviewed only after publication.
review the manuscript objectively and only in terms of its content and ensure that nationality, gender, religious and political beliefs, and economic apprehension do not influence the review.
review the manuscript in a constructive and kind tone, and avoid making personal comments including hostility, slander, and insult.
review the manuscript they have agreed to review on time and in accordance with the ethical rules stated above.

Ethical Responsibilities of Publisher

The publisher of JOSAM has a non-profit aim. Publisher and the Board of JOSAM are conscious of the fact that they must observe the ethical responsibilities below and act accordingly:

Editors are responsible for all the processes that the manuscripts submitted to JOSAM will go through. Within this framework, ignoring the economic or political interests, the decision-makers are the editors.
The publisher undertakes to have independent editorial decision-making.
The publisher protects the intellectual property rights of all the articles published in JOSAM and holds the responsibility to keep a record of each unpublished article.
The publisher bears all the responsibility to take precautions against scientific abuse, fraud, and plagiarism.

Unethical Behaviour

Should you encounter any unethical act or content in JOSAM apart from the ethical responsibilities listed above, please notify the journal by e-mail at

Duplicate/Previous Publication or Submission

Manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print, electronic format, or any repository, and are not under consideration by another publication or electronic medium. Copies of related or possibly duplicative materials (ie, those containing substantially similar content or using the same or similar data) that have been previously published or are under consideration elsewhere must be provided at the time of manuscript submission.

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