Research Article
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Sigara kutusu üzerindeki sağlık uyarı etiketlerinin kardiyoloji polikliniğine başvuran hastalar üzerindeki etkisi

Year 2018, Volume 2, Issue 3, 303 - 309, 01.09.2018
https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.435234

Abstract

Amaç: Sigara kullanıcılarına, sigara tüketimine bağlı oluşabilecek sağlık sorunlarını anlatmaları bakımından sigara kutusu üzerindeki sağlık uyarı etiketleri (SUE) sigara kullanımı ile mücadelede yıllardır kullanılan bir yöntemdir. Ülkemizde yurt dışında kullanılan SUE’lerin toplum ve özellikle kardiyoloji polikliniğine başvuran hastalar üzerinde nasıl bir etki yaptığını araştıran çalışma yoktur. Biz bu çalışmada SUE’lerinin kardiyoloji polikliniğine başvuran hastalar üzerindeki etkisini araştırdık ve ülkemizde kullanılan SUE’ler ile yurt dışında kullanılan daha sert ve çarpıcı olduğunu düşündüğümüz SUE’leri karşılaştırdık.

Yöntemler: Tanımlayıcı tipte olan bu araştırmamızda kardiyoloji polikliniğine başvuran 239 hastaya 45 soruyu içeren bir anket uyguladı. Ülkemizdeki kullanılan 14 farklı görsel, yabancı ülkelere kullanılan 9 faklı görsel ile karşılaştırıldı. 

Bulgular: Yaptığımız çalışmada kardiyoloji polikliniğine başvuran hastaların %28.9’nun hiç sigara kullanmadığı görülürken, %36.0’sı halen sigara kullanmakta olup, %35.1’i daha önce kullanıp bırakmıştır. Araştırmaya katılanların %57,7’si sigaralar üzerindeki görselleri sigarayı önleyici olarak etkili bulduğunu ve %90,8’i yabancı ülkelerde kullanılan görselleri, Türkiye’deki görsellerden daha etkili bulduğunu belirtti.

Sonuç: Bu çalışma göstermektedir ki kardiyoloji polikliniğine başvuran hastalar arasında bile halen sigara kullanımı yaygındır. Ülkemizde kullanılan SUE'ler ile karşılaştırıldığında yurt dışında kullanılan görselleri, katılımcıların büyük çoğunluğu daha etkili bulmuştur. Daha sert ve çarpıcı SUE'lerin kullanılmasının sigaraya karşı mücadelede daha etkili olabileceği gözükmektedir.


References

  • 1. Warren CW, Jones NR, Peruga A, Chauvin J, Baptiste JP, Costa de Silva V, et al. Global youth tobacco surveillance, 2000-2007. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2008;57:1-28.
  • 2. World Health Organization Geneva: WHO report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, the MPOWER package. (ISBN 978 92 4 159628 2) 2008 Jun (cited 2017 December 2): 1(1): (24 screens) Available from URL: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43818/1/9789241596282_eng.pdf.
  • 3. Public Health Institution of Turkey. Global Adult Tobacco Survey Turkey 2012. (ISBN 978-975-590-502-0) 2012 Dec (cited 2017 July 21): 1(1): (29 screens) Available from URL: http://www.halksagligiens.hacettepe.edu.tr/english/GATS_english.pdf.
  • 4. TC. Ministry of Health, Refik Saydam Hıfzıssıhha Center Presidency Hıfzıssıhha School Directorate, Başkent University. National Burden of Disease and Cost Effectiveness Project. Disease Burden Final Report. Ankara, 2004 Dec (cited 2017 March 5): 1(1): (207 screens). Available from: URL: http://www.toraks.org.tr/userfiles/file/ulusal_hastalik_yuku_hastalikyukuTR.pdf.
  • 5. Ergüder T. Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Global Action for Global Health (The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control). Ankara, (ISBN:978-975-590-247-0) 2008 Feb (cited 2017 July 5): 1(1): (9 screens). Available from: URL: https://sbu.saglik.gov.tr/Ekutuphane/kitaplar/t20.pdf.
  • 6. Moodie C, Hastings G. Tobacco packaging as promotion. Tobacco Control. 2010;19:168–70.
  • 7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette package health warnings and interest in quitting smoking - 14 countries, 2008–2010.MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report. 2011;60(20):645–51.
  • 8. Durkin S, Brennan E, Wakefield MA. Mass media campaigns to promote smoking cessation among adults: An integrative review. Tobacco Control. 2012;21:127–38.
  • 9. T. C. Official Newspaper. Regulation on Procedures and Principles for Production Shape, Labeling and Inspection for the Protection of Tobacco Products from Harms. Jan 6, 2005. Available from: URL: http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2005/01/20050106-14.htm.
  • 10. T. C. Official Newspaper. Regulation on Procedures and Principles for Production Shape, Labeling and Inspection for the Protection of Tobacco Products from Harms. Feb 27, 2010 Available from: URL: http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2010/02/20100227-8.htm.
  • 11. Bansal Travers M, Hammond D, Smith P, Cummings KM. The impact of cigarette pack design, descriptors, and warning labels on risk perception in the US. Am J Prev Med. 2011;40(6):674-82.
  • 12. Zhao X, Nan X, Yang B, Iles IA. Cigarette warning labels: graphics, framing, and identity. Health Education. 2014;114(2):101-17.
  • 13. Goodall C, Appiah O. Adolescents' perceptions of Canadian cigarette package warning labels: investigating the effects of message framing. Health Commun. 2008;23(2):117-27.
  • 14. Inoue-Choi M, Hartge P, Liao LM, Hartge P, Caporaso N, Freedman ND. Association between long-term low-intensity cigarette smoking and incidence of smoking-related cancer in the national institutes of health-AARP cohort. Int J Cancer. 2018;142:271.
  • 15. Tobacco Labelling Research Center. Available from: URL: http://www.tobaccolabels.ca/healthwarningimages/.
  • 16. World Health Organization. Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases. WHO (ISBN 978 92 4 156485 4 2014) 2014 Jun (cited 2017 June 1): 1(1): (232 screens). Available from: URL: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/148114/1/9789241564854_eng.pdf?ua=1.
  • 17. Kang E. Assessing Health Impacts of Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Korea Using DYNAMO-HIA. J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50:251-61.
  • 18. Strahan EJ, White K, Fong GT, Fabrigar LR, Zanna MP, Cameron R. Enhancing the effectiveness of tobacco package warning labels: a social psychological perspective. Tob Control. 2002;11:183-90.
  • 19. Environics Research Group. Wave 9 Surveys. The Health Effects of Tobacco and Health Warning Messages on Cigarette Packages: Survey of Adults and Adults Smokers. Toronto, Environics Research Group Limited, 2005 (cited 2017 June 10): 1(1): (29 screens). Available from: URL: http://www.tobaccolabels.ca/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Canada-2005-The-Health-Effects-of-Tobacco-and-Health-Warning-Messages-on-Cigarette-Packages-A-Survey-of-Adults-and-Adult-Smokers-Government-report.pdf.
  • 20. Ratneswaran C, Chisnall B, Drakatos P, Sivakumar S, Sivakunar B, Barrecheguren M, et al. A cross-sectional survey investigating the desensitization of graphic health warning labels and their impact on smokers, non-smokers and patients with COPD in a London cohort. BMJ Open. 2014;4:e004782.
  • 21. Ratneswaran C, Chisnall B, Li M, Tan S, Douiri A, Anantham D, et al. Desensitization to cigarette package graphic health warnings: a cohort comparison between London and Singapore. BMJ Open. 2016;6:e012693.
  • 22. White V, Bariola E, Faulkner A, Coomber K, Wakefield M. Graphic health warnings on cigarette packs: how long before the effects on adolescents wear out? Nicotine Tob Res. 2015;17:776–83.
  • 23. Borland R, Wilson N, Fong GT, Hammond D, Cummings KM, Yong HH, et al. Impact of graphic and text warnings on cigarette packs: findings from four countries over five years. Tob Control. 2009;18:358–64.
  • 24. Hammond D, Fong GT, Borland R, Cummings KM, McNeill A, Driezen P. Text and graphic warnings on cigarette packages: findings from the international tobacco control four country study. Am J Prev Med. 2007;32:202–9.
  • 25. Tversky A, Kahneman D. Availability: a heuristic for judging frequency and probability. Cogn Psychol. 1973;5:207–32.
  • 26. Wyer RS Jr, Hartwick J. The role of information retrieval and conditional inference processes in belief formation and change. Adv Exp Soc Psychol. 1980;13:241–84.
  • 27. Strahan EJ, White K, Fong GT, Fabrigar LR, Zanna MP, Cameron R. Enhancing the effectiveness of tobacco package warning labels: a social psychological perspective. Tob Control. 2002;11:183-90.
  • 28. Steptoe A, Wardle J, Smith H, Kopp M, Skrabski A, Vinck J, et al. Tobacco smoking in young adults from 21 European countries: Association with attitudes and risk awareness. Addiction. 1995;90:571–82.
  • 29. Bidwell G, Sahu A, Edwards R, Harrison RA, Thornton J, Kelly SP. Perceptions of blindness related to smoking: a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Eye. 2005;19:945–8.

The effects of health warning labels on cigarette packages on patients who apply to cardiology clinic

Year 2018, Volume 2, Issue 3, 303 - 309, 01.09.2018
https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.435234

Abstract

Aim: Health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packages, which describe the health problems that may be caused by smoking, have been used struggle against smoking for many years. There are no studies in Turkey that investigate how HWLs used abroad have an impact on the population, and especially on patients who apply to cardiology clinic. In this study, we investigated the effect of HWLs on patients who apply to cardiology clinic and compared the HWLs used in our country with those used abroad which we considered to be harsh and striking.

Methods: In this descriptive study, a questionnaire consisting of 45 questions was administered to 239 patients who applied to cardiology clinic. 14 different visuals used in our country and 9 different visuals used in foreign countries were compared. 

Results: In our study, 28.9% of the participants who applied to cardiology clinic have never smoked, 36.0% of them still smoked and 35.1% of them were ex-smokers. 57.7% of the survey participants stated that the HWLs on cigarette packages were effective and 90.8% of the participants stated that warnings in foreign countries were more effective than the ones in Turkey.

Conclusion: This study shows that even among patients who apply to cardiology clinic, smoking is still common. When compared to the HWLs used in our country, the ones used abroad were found to be more effective by the majority of the participants. The use of harsher and more striking HWLs seem to be more effective to struggle against smoking.


References

  • 1. Warren CW, Jones NR, Peruga A, Chauvin J, Baptiste JP, Costa de Silva V, et al. Global youth tobacco surveillance, 2000-2007. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2008;57:1-28.
  • 2. World Health Organization Geneva: WHO report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, the MPOWER package. (ISBN 978 92 4 159628 2) 2008 Jun (cited 2017 December 2): 1(1): (24 screens) Available from URL: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43818/1/9789241596282_eng.pdf.
  • 3. Public Health Institution of Turkey. Global Adult Tobacco Survey Turkey 2012. (ISBN 978-975-590-502-0) 2012 Dec (cited 2017 July 21): 1(1): (29 screens) Available from URL: http://www.halksagligiens.hacettepe.edu.tr/english/GATS_english.pdf.
  • 4. TC. Ministry of Health, Refik Saydam Hıfzıssıhha Center Presidency Hıfzıssıhha School Directorate, Başkent University. National Burden of Disease and Cost Effectiveness Project. Disease Burden Final Report. Ankara, 2004 Dec (cited 2017 March 5): 1(1): (207 screens). Available from: URL: http://www.toraks.org.tr/userfiles/file/ulusal_hastalik_yuku_hastalikyukuTR.pdf.
  • 5. Ergüder T. Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Global Action for Global Health (The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control). Ankara, (ISBN:978-975-590-247-0) 2008 Feb (cited 2017 July 5): 1(1): (9 screens). Available from: URL: https://sbu.saglik.gov.tr/Ekutuphane/kitaplar/t20.pdf.
  • 6. Moodie C, Hastings G. Tobacco packaging as promotion. Tobacco Control. 2010;19:168–70.
  • 7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette package health warnings and interest in quitting smoking - 14 countries, 2008–2010.MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report. 2011;60(20):645–51.
  • 8. Durkin S, Brennan E, Wakefield MA. Mass media campaigns to promote smoking cessation among adults: An integrative review. Tobacco Control. 2012;21:127–38.
  • 9. T. C. Official Newspaper. Regulation on Procedures and Principles for Production Shape, Labeling and Inspection for the Protection of Tobacco Products from Harms. Jan 6, 2005. Available from: URL: http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2005/01/20050106-14.htm.
  • 10. T. C. Official Newspaper. Regulation on Procedures and Principles for Production Shape, Labeling and Inspection for the Protection of Tobacco Products from Harms. Feb 27, 2010 Available from: URL: http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2010/02/20100227-8.htm.
  • 11. Bansal Travers M, Hammond D, Smith P, Cummings KM. The impact of cigarette pack design, descriptors, and warning labels on risk perception in the US. Am J Prev Med. 2011;40(6):674-82.
  • 12. Zhao X, Nan X, Yang B, Iles IA. Cigarette warning labels: graphics, framing, and identity. Health Education. 2014;114(2):101-17.
  • 13. Goodall C, Appiah O. Adolescents' perceptions of Canadian cigarette package warning labels: investigating the effects of message framing. Health Commun. 2008;23(2):117-27.
  • 14. Inoue-Choi M, Hartge P, Liao LM, Hartge P, Caporaso N, Freedman ND. Association between long-term low-intensity cigarette smoking and incidence of smoking-related cancer in the national institutes of health-AARP cohort. Int J Cancer. 2018;142:271.
  • 15. Tobacco Labelling Research Center. Available from: URL: http://www.tobaccolabels.ca/healthwarningimages/.
  • 16. World Health Organization. Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases. WHO (ISBN 978 92 4 156485 4 2014) 2014 Jun (cited 2017 June 1): 1(1): (232 screens). Available from: URL: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/148114/1/9789241564854_eng.pdf?ua=1.
  • 17. Kang E. Assessing Health Impacts of Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packs in Korea Using DYNAMO-HIA. J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50:251-61.
  • 18. Strahan EJ, White K, Fong GT, Fabrigar LR, Zanna MP, Cameron R. Enhancing the effectiveness of tobacco package warning labels: a social psychological perspective. Tob Control. 2002;11:183-90.
  • 19. Environics Research Group. Wave 9 Surveys. The Health Effects of Tobacco and Health Warning Messages on Cigarette Packages: Survey of Adults and Adults Smokers. Toronto, Environics Research Group Limited, 2005 (cited 2017 June 10): 1(1): (29 screens). Available from: URL: http://www.tobaccolabels.ca/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Canada-2005-The-Health-Effects-of-Tobacco-and-Health-Warning-Messages-on-Cigarette-Packages-A-Survey-of-Adults-and-Adult-Smokers-Government-report.pdf.
  • 20. Ratneswaran C, Chisnall B, Drakatos P, Sivakumar S, Sivakunar B, Barrecheguren M, et al. A cross-sectional survey investigating the desensitization of graphic health warning labels and their impact on smokers, non-smokers and patients with COPD in a London cohort. BMJ Open. 2014;4:e004782.
  • 21. Ratneswaran C, Chisnall B, Li M, Tan S, Douiri A, Anantham D, et al. Desensitization to cigarette package graphic health warnings: a cohort comparison between London and Singapore. BMJ Open. 2016;6:e012693.
  • 22. White V, Bariola E, Faulkner A, Coomber K, Wakefield M. Graphic health warnings on cigarette packs: how long before the effects on adolescents wear out? Nicotine Tob Res. 2015;17:776–83.
  • 23. Borland R, Wilson N, Fong GT, Hammond D, Cummings KM, Yong HH, et al. Impact of graphic and text warnings on cigarette packs: findings from four countries over five years. Tob Control. 2009;18:358–64.
  • 24. Hammond D, Fong GT, Borland R, Cummings KM, McNeill A, Driezen P. Text and graphic warnings on cigarette packages: findings from the international tobacco control four country study. Am J Prev Med. 2007;32:202–9.
  • 25. Tversky A, Kahneman D. Availability: a heuristic for judging frequency and probability. Cogn Psychol. 1973;5:207–32.
  • 26. Wyer RS Jr, Hartwick J. The role of information retrieval and conditional inference processes in belief formation and change. Adv Exp Soc Psychol. 1980;13:241–84.
  • 27. Strahan EJ, White K, Fong GT, Fabrigar LR, Zanna MP, Cameron R. Enhancing the effectiveness of tobacco package warning labels: a social psychological perspective. Tob Control. 2002;11:183-90.
  • 28. Steptoe A, Wardle J, Smith H, Kopp M, Skrabski A, Vinck J, et al. Tobacco smoking in young adults from 21 European countries: Association with attitudes and risk awareness. Addiction. 1995;90:571–82.
  • 29. Bidwell G, Sahu A, Edwards R, Harrison RA, Thornton J, Kelly SP. Perceptions of blindness related to smoking: a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Eye. 2005;19:945–8.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects General and Internal Medicine
Journal Section Research article
Authors

Ercan AKŞİT (Primary Author)
ÇANAKKALE ONSEKİZ MART ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-4478-4324
Türkiye


Çoşkun BAKAR
ÇANAKKALE ONSEKİZ MART ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Özgür ÖZERDOĞAN
ÇANAKKALE ONSEKİZ MART ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-2176-9073
Türkiye


Özge TURGAY YILDIRIM
ESKİŞEHİR DEVLET HASTANESİ
Türkiye


Fatih AYDIN This is me
ESKİŞEHİR DEVLET HASTANESİ
Türkiye


Ayşe HÜSEYİNOĞLU AYDIN This is me
ESKİŞEHİR DEVLET HASTANESİ
Türkiye


Bahadır KIRILMAZ This is me
ÇANAKKALE ONSEKİZ MART ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Emine GAZİ
ÇANAKKALE ONSEKİZ MART ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Ali DUYGU This is me
ÇANAKKALE ONSEKİZ MART ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye

Publication Date September 1, 2018
Published in Issue Year 2018, Volume 2, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { josam435234, journal = {Journal of Surgery and Medicine}, issn = {}, eissn = {2602-2079}, address = {jsurgmed@gmail.com}, publisher = {Fatih BAŞAK}, year = {2018}, volume = {2}, pages = {303 - 309}, doi = {10.28982/josam.435234}, title = {The effects of health warning labels on cigarette packages on patients who apply to cardiology clinic}, key = {cite}, author = {Akşit, Ercan and Bakar, Çoşkun and Özerdoğan, Özgür and Turgay Yıldırım, Özge and Aydın, Fatih and Hüseyinoğlu Aydın, Ayşe and Kırılmaz, Bahadır and Gazi, Emine and Duygu, Ali} }
APA Akşit, E. , Bakar, Ç. , Özerdoğan, Ö. , Turgay Yıldırım, Ö. , Aydın, F. , Hüseyinoğlu Aydın, A. , Kırılmaz, B. , Gazi, E. & Duygu, A. (2018). The effects of health warning labels on cigarette packages on patients who apply to cardiology clinic . Journal of Surgery and Medicine , 2 (3) , 303-309 . DOI: 10.28982/josam.435234
MLA Akşit, E. , Bakar, Ç. , Özerdoğan, Ö. , Turgay Yıldırım, Ö. , Aydın, F. , Hüseyinoğlu Aydın, A. , Kırılmaz, B. , Gazi, E. , Duygu, A. "The effects of health warning labels on cigarette packages on patients who apply to cardiology clinic" . Journal of Surgery and Medicine 2 (2018 ): 303-309 <https://jsurgmed.com/en/pub/issue/36726/435234>
Chicago Akşit, E. , Bakar, Ç. , Özerdoğan, Ö. , Turgay Yıldırım, Ö. , Aydın, F. , Hüseyinoğlu Aydın, A. , Kırılmaz, B. , Gazi, E. , Duygu, A. "The effects of health warning labels on cigarette packages on patients who apply to cardiology clinic". Journal of Surgery and Medicine 2 (2018 ): 303-309
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The effects of health warning labels on cigarette packages on patients who apply to cardiology clinic AU - Ercan Akşit , Çoşkun Bakar , Özgür Özerdoğan , Özge Turgay Yıldırım , Fatih Aydın , Ayşe Hüseyinoğlu Aydın , Bahadır Kırılmaz , Emine Gazi , Ali Duygu Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.28982/josam.435234 DO - 10.28982/josam.435234 T2 - Journal of Surgery and Medicine JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 303 EP - 309 VL - 2 IS - 3 SN - -2602-2079 M3 - doi: 10.28982/josam.435234 UR - https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.435234 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Surgery and Medicine The effects of health warning labels on cigarette packages on patients who apply to cardiology clinic %A Ercan Akşit , Çoşkun Bakar , Özgür Özerdoğan , Özge Turgay Yıldırım , Fatih Aydın , Ayşe Hüseyinoğlu Aydın , Bahadır Kırılmaz , Emine Gazi , Ali Duygu %T The effects of health warning labels on cigarette packages on patients who apply to cardiology clinic %D 2018 %J Journal of Surgery and Medicine %P -2602-2079 %V 2 %N 3 %R doi: 10.28982/josam.435234 %U 10.28982/josam.435234
ISNAD Akşit, Ercan , Bakar, Çoşkun , Özerdoğan, Özgür , Turgay Yıldırım, Özge , Aydın, Fatih , Hüseyinoğlu Aydın, Ayşe , Kırılmaz, Bahadır , Gazi, Emine , Duygu, Ali . "The effects of health warning labels on cigarette packages on patients who apply to cardiology clinic". Journal of Surgery and Medicine 2 / 3 (September 2018): 303-309 . https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.435234
AMA Akşit E. , Bakar Ç. , Özerdoğan Ö. , Turgay Yıldırım Ö. , Aydın F. , Hüseyinoğlu Aydın A. , Kırılmaz B. , Gazi E. , Duygu A. The effects of health warning labels on cigarette packages on patients who apply to cardiology clinic. J Surg Med. 2018; 2(3): 303-309.
Vancouver Akşit E. , Bakar Ç. , Özerdoğan Ö. , Turgay Yıldırım Ö. , Aydın F. , Hüseyinoğlu Aydın A. , Kırılmaz B. , Gazi E. , Duygu A. The effects of health warning labels on cigarette packages on patients who apply to cardiology clinic. Journal of Surgery and Medicine. 2018; 2(3): 303-309.
IEEE E. Akşit , Ç. Bakar , Ö. Özerdoğan , Ö. Turgay Yıldırım , F. Aydın , A. Hüseyinoğlu Aydın , B. Kırılmaz , E. Gazi and A. Duygu , "The effects of health warning labels on cigarette packages on patients who apply to cardiology clinic", Journal of Surgery and Medicine, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 303-309, Sep. 2018, doi:10.28982/josam.435234

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