Pediatric neuroanesthesia experiences: A single center retrospective cohort study

Neuroanesthesia in pediatric patients



anesthesia, neurosurgery, pediatric neuroanesthesia


Background/Aim: Pediatric neuroanesthesia is a special field that requires significant experience and infrastructure because of anatomical, neurological, and pharmacological differences in the pediatric patient population. Although technological improvements provide more effective and safer neuroanesthesiological management, the principles of neuroanesthesia, neurocognitive development, and the effects of anesthetic agents on central nervous system development are well-known. The majority of pediatric neuroanesthesia articles in the literature are reviews; however, retrospective/prospective case series and controlled research are limited. In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to contribute to the existing literature by reviewing and analyzing our single-center 10-year experiences and results addressing pediatric neuroanesthesia management.

Methods: After ethical committee approval, anesthetic and surgical reports from 1165 pediatric neurosurgical cases over ten years were collected. Demographic data, intra-operative vascular management, anesthesia techniques, airway management, patient positions, analgesia methods, and complications were evaluated in this retrospective cohort study. The available surgical intervention, patient positions, intra-operative neuromonitorization (IONM), and intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (IOMR) records were also analyzed.

Results: Six-hundred forty-six (55.4%) girls and 519 (44.5%) boys were included in the study. The median age was 60 (0–216) months. Cranial interventions were performed in 842 (72.3%) patients, and spinal interventions were performed in 323 (27.7%) patients. Patients’ American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical scales grouped as I, II, III, and IV were 718 (61.6%), 360 (30.9%), 82 (7%), and 5 (0.4%), respectively. Sevoflurane (40.3%), propofol (37.2%), and sodium thiopental (2.5%) were used for anesthetic induction. Neuromuscular block was performed with rocuronium (56.7%) and atracurium (14.4%). Neuromuscular blocking agents were not used in 337 patients (28.9%). A blood transfusion was required in 120 patients (10.3%), and 40% of these patients underwent surgery for craniosynostosis. Two-hundred twenty-two (19.1%) were monitored with IONM, and IOMR was carried out in 124 (10.6%) of the cases. The anesthesia-related complication rate was 5.15% (60 patients).

Conclusion: Although pediatric neurosurgical interventions involve high risks, they are becoming increasingly common in our daily practice. Neuroanesthesiologists should know the procedures, techniques, and advances for safe and effective management of pediatric neurosurgical cases. We think that these data may be helpful as a guide for the anesthetic management of pediatric neurosurgical cases.


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Emmez G, İnan G, Pampal HK, Şıvgın V, Güleç Kılıç A, Börcek A Özgün, Özköse Şatırlar Z. Pediatric neuroanesthesia experiences: A single center retrospective cohort study: Neuroanesthesia in pediatric patients. J Surg Med [Internet]. 2023 Mar. 9 [cited 2024 Apr. 18];7(3):214-9. Available from: