Research Article
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The effect of online education during the pandemic on ocular surface symptoms

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 9, 928 - 931, 01.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.989477

Abstract

Background/Aim: During the pandemic, eye symptoms increased. This study aimed to investigate the effects of online education on ocular surface symptoms, which was a part of the distance learning model during the COVID-19 pandemic, to be able to prevent the formation of irreversible damage. Methods: This cohort study included 315 students who were undertaking online education and presented at the Ophthalmology Department of a university hospital. The sociodemographic data, Schirmer test results, tear break-up time (TBUT) and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores of the students were noted. The data were analyzed using SPSS v. 22.0 software and a value of P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Evaluation was made of 315 students with a mean age of 14.48 (5.86) years (range: 6-29 years). Of these, 159 were studying at a high school or university, and 267 had been participating in online education for ≥6 hours per week. New symptoms had developed in the eyes of 213. The Schirmer test results were 8.74 (3.76) mm in the right eye and 8.90 (3.86) mm in the left eye. TBUT was 9.95(3.60) seconds in the right eye and 10.15 (3.58) seconds in the left. The mean OSDI score was 26.39 (11.85). OSDI was significantly negatively correlated with the Schirmer results and TBUT (r= -0.883, P<0.05, r= -0.793, P<0.05, respectively), while Schirmer and TBUT were positively correlated (r=0.871, P<0.05). Conclusion: With the continuation of education online during the COVID-19 pandemic, televisions, computers, and tablets were commonly used. This increased screen time led to the development of new symptoms causing significant changes in the OSDI, TBUT, and Schirmer tests.

References

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  • 2. World Health Organization Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Situation report - 81.
  • 3. Lee SJ, Ward KP, Chang OD, Downing KM. Parenting activities and the transition to home-based education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Children and Youth Services Review. 2021;122:105585.
  • 4. Seymour-Walsh AE, Bell A, Weber A, Smith T. Adapting to a new reality: COVID-19 coronavirus and online education in the health professions. Rural Remote Health. 2020 May;20(2):6000.
  • 5. Paudel P. Online education: Benefits, challenges and strategies during and after COVID-19 in higher education. International Journal on Studies in Education. 2021;3(2):70-85.
  • 6. Wong CW, Tsai A, Jonas JB, Ohno-Matsui K, Chen J, Ang M, et al. Digital Screen Time During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Risk for a Further Myopia Boom? Am J Ophthalmol. 2021 Mar;223:333-7.
  • 7. Simavlı H, Önder Hİ, Bucak YY, Erdurmuş M, Güler E, Hepşen İF. Bilgisayar Kullanıcılarında Oküler Yüzey Hastalık İndeksi ile Kuru Göz Testleri ve Demografik Özellikler Arasındaki İlişki. Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology/Turk Oftalmoloji Dergisi. 2014;44(2).
  • 8. Alvarez-Peregrina C, Sánchez-Tena MÁ, Martinez-Perez C, Villa-Collar C. The Relationship Between Screen and Outdoor Time With Rates of Myopia in Spanish Children. Front Public Health. 2020 Oct 14;8:560378.
  • 9. Bahkir FA, Grandee SS. Impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on digital device-related ocular health. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2020 Nov;68(11):2378-83.
  • 10. Bostancı B. Dijital Göz Yorgunluğu Sendromu ve Kuru Göz. MN Oftalmoloji 2016;23:96-9
  • 11. Shantakumari N, Eldeeb R, Sreedharan J, Gopal K. Computer use and vision. related problems among university students in Ajman, United Arab Emirate. Annals of medical and health sciences research. 2014;4(2):258-63.
  • 12. Schiffman RM, Christianson MD, Jacobsen G, Hirsch JD, Reis BL. Reliability and Validity of the Ocular Surface Disease Index. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2000;118(5):615-21.
  • 13. Pang Y, Madro S. Effect of Screen time on Dry Eye Symptoms in Young Adults. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2020;61(7):341.
  • 14. Mishra G. Impact of prolonged digital screens exposure on ocular surface and management. International Journal of Health and Clinical Research. 2021;4(3):136-8.
  • 15. Mehra D, Galor A. Digital Screen Use and Dry Eye: A Review. Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila). 2020 Dec;9(6):491-7.
  • 16. Uchino M, Yokoi N, Uchino Y, Dogru M, Kawashima M, Komuro A, et al. Prevalence of dry eye disease and its risk factors in visual display terminal users: the Osaka study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013 Oct;156(4):759-66.
  • 17. Kawashima M, Sano K, Takechi S, Tsubota K. Impact of lifestyle intervention on dry eye disease in office workers: a randomized controlled trial. J Occup Health. 2018 Jul 25;60(4):281-8.
  • 18. Yiğit U, Evcimen Y, Kırık F, Ağaçhan A. Kuru Göz Hastalarında Gözyaşı Osmolarite Ölçümünün Gün İçi Değişiklikleri. Turk J Ophthalmol. 2013;43:437-41.
  • 19. Gümüş K, Arda H, Öner AÖ, Kaküçük S, Mirza E. Bilgisayar kullanımının kuru göz parametreleri üzerine olan etkisinin değerlendirilmesi. Türk Oftalmoloji Dergisi. 2009;39(4):244-9.
  • 20. Balyen L. Bilgisayar Kullanıcılarında Oküler Yüzey Hastalığı İndeksi ve Kuru Göz Testi Parametreleri Arasındaki İlişkinin Değerlendirilmesi. Kafkas Tıp Bilimleri Dergisi. 2019;9(3):169-79.

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 9, 928 - 931, 01.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.989477

Abstract

References

  • 1. Malik YS, Kumar N, Sircar S, Kaushik R, Bhat S, Dhama K, et al. Coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19): challenges and a global perspective. Pathogens. 2020;9(7):519.
  • 2. World Health Organization Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Situation report - 81.
  • 3. Lee SJ, Ward KP, Chang OD, Downing KM. Parenting activities and the transition to home-based education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Children and Youth Services Review. 2021;122:105585.
  • 4. Seymour-Walsh AE, Bell A, Weber A, Smith T. Adapting to a new reality: COVID-19 coronavirus and online education in the health professions. Rural Remote Health. 2020 May;20(2):6000.
  • 5. Paudel P. Online education: Benefits, challenges and strategies during and after COVID-19 in higher education. International Journal on Studies in Education. 2021;3(2):70-85.
  • 6. Wong CW, Tsai A, Jonas JB, Ohno-Matsui K, Chen J, Ang M, et al. Digital Screen Time During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Risk for a Further Myopia Boom? Am J Ophthalmol. 2021 Mar;223:333-7.
  • 7. Simavlı H, Önder Hİ, Bucak YY, Erdurmuş M, Güler E, Hepşen İF. Bilgisayar Kullanıcılarında Oküler Yüzey Hastalık İndeksi ile Kuru Göz Testleri ve Demografik Özellikler Arasındaki İlişki. Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology/Turk Oftalmoloji Dergisi. 2014;44(2).
  • 8. Alvarez-Peregrina C, Sánchez-Tena MÁ, Martinez-Perez C, Villa-Collar C. The Relationship Between Screen and Outdoor Time With Rates of Myopia in Spanish Children. Front Public Health. 2020 Oct 14;8:560378.
  • 9. Bahkir FA, Grandee SS. Impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on digital device-related ocular health. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2020 Nov;68(11):2378-83.
  • 10. Bostancı B. Dijital Göz Yorgunluğu Sendromu ve Kuru Göz. MN Oftalmoloji 2016;23:96-9
  • 11. Shantakumari N, Eldeeb R, Sreedharan J, Gopal K. Computer use and vision. related problems among university students in Ajman, United Arab Emirate. Annals of medical and health sciences research. 2014;4(2):258-63.
  • 12. Schiffman RM, Christianson MD, Jacobsen G, Hirsch JD, Reis BL. Reliability and Validity of the Ocular Surface Disease Index. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2000;118(5):615-21.
  • 13. Pang Y, Madro S. Effect of Screen time on Dry Eye Symptoms in Young Adults. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2020;61(7):341.
  • 14. Mishra G. Impact of prolonged digital screens exposure on ocular surface and management. International Journal of Health and Clinical Research. 2021;4(3):136-8.
  • 15. Mehra D, Galor A. Digital Screen Use and Dry Eye: A Review. Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila). 2020 Dec;9(6):491-7.
  • 16. Uchino M, Yokoi N, Uchino Y, Dogru M, Kawashima M, Komuro A, et al. Prevalence of dry eye disease and its risk factors in visual display terminal users: the Osaka study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013 Oct;156(4):759-66.
  • 17. Kawashima M, Sano K, Takechi S, Tsubota K. Impact of lifestyle intervention on dry eye disease in office workers: a randomized controlled trial. J Occup Health. 2018 Jul 25;60(4):281-8.
  • 18. Yiğit U, Evcimen Y, Kırık F, Ağaçhan A. Kuru Göz Hastalarında Gözyaşı Osmolarite Ölçümünün Gün İçi Değişiklikleri. Turk J Ophthalmol. 2013;43:437-41.
  • 19. Gümüş K, Arda H, Öner AÖ, Kaküçük S, Mirza E. Bilgisayar kullanımının kuru göz parametreleri üzerine olan etkisinin değerlendirilmesi. Türk Oftalmoloji Dergisi. 2009;39(4):244-9.
  • 20. Balyen L. Bilgisayar Kullanıcılarında Oküler Yüzey Hastalığı İndeksi ve Kuru Göz Testi Parametreleri Arasındaki İlişkinin Değerlendirilmesi. Kafkas Tıp Bilimleri Dergisi. 2019;9(3):169-79.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Ophthalmology
Journal Section Research article
Authors

Abdullah BEYOĞLU
KAHRAMANMARAŞ SÜTÇÜ İMAM ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-1948-7755
Türkiye


Muhammed Mustafa BEYOĞLU (Primary Author)
Onikişubat İlçe Sağlık Müdürlüğü
0000-0003-0367-5794
Türkiye

Publication Date September 1, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 9

Cite

Bibtex @research article { josam989477, journal = {Journal of Surgery and Medicine}, issn = {}, eissn = {2602-2079}, address = {jsurgmed@gmail.com}, publisher = {Fatih BAŞAK}, year = {2021}, volume = {5}, pages = {928 - 931}, doi = {10.28982/josam.989477}, title = {The effect of online education during the pandemic on ocular surface symptoms}, key = {cite}, author = {Beyoğlu, Abdullah and Beyoğlu, Muhammed Mustafa} }
APA Beyoğlu, A. & Beyoğlu, M. M. (2021). The effect of online education during the pandemic on ocular surface symptoms . Journal of Surgery and Medicine , 5 (9) , 928-931 . DOI: 10.28982/josam.989477
MLA Beyoğlu, A. , Beyoğlu, M. M. "The effect of online education during the pandemic on ocular surface symptoms" . Journal of Surgery and Medicine 5 (2021 ): 928-931 <http://jsurgmed.com/en/pub/issue/64812/989477>
Chicago Beyoğlu, A. , Beyoğlu, M. M. "The effect of online education during the pandemic on ocular surface symptoms". Journal of Surgery and Medicine 5 (2021 ): 928-931
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The effect of online education during the pandemic on ocular surface symptoms AU - Abdullah Beyoğlu , Muhammed Mustafa Beyoğlu Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.28982/josam.989477 DO - 10.28982/josam.989477 T2 - Journal of Surgery and Medicine JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 928 EP - 931 VL - 5 IS - 9 SN - -2602-2079 M3 - doi: 10.28982/josam.989477 UR - https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.989477 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Surgery and Medicine The effect of online education during the pandemic on ocular surface symptoms %A Abdullah Beyoğlu , Muhammed Mustafa Beyoğlu %T The effect of online education during the pandemic on ocular surface symptoms %D 2021 %J Journal of Surgery and Medicine %P -2602-2079 %V 5 %N 9 %R doi: 10.28982/josam.989477 %U 10.28982/josam.989477
ISNAD Beyoğlu, Abdullah , Beyoğlu, Muhammed Mustafa . "The effect of online education during the pandemic on ocular surface symptoms". Journal of Surgery and Medicine 5 / 9 (September 2021): 928-931 . https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.989477
AMA Beyoğlu A. , Beyoğlu M. M. The effect of online education during the pandemic on ocular surface symptoms. J Surg Med. 2021; 5(9): 928-931.
Vancouver Beyoğlu A. , Beyoğlu M. M. The effect of online education during the pandemic on ocular surface symptoms. Journal of Surgery and Medicine. 2021; 5(9): 928-931.
IEEE A. Beyoğlu and M. M. Beyoğlu , "The effect of online education during the pandemic on ocular surface symptoms", Journal of Surgery and Medicine, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 928-931, Sep. 2021, doi:10.28982/josam.989477

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