Research Article
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The rate and associated factors with antibody response in patients with COVID-19 infection

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 9, 832 - 837, 01.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.867695

Abstract

Background/Aim: It remains unknown in what form and to what extent antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 confer immunity and whether these antibodies from previous infections could ensure protection from reinfection. This study aimed to investigate the rate of antibody positivity among patients who recovered from COVID-19 infection and the factors influencing antibody production among these patients. Methods: This prospective case control study included 111 males (mean age: 34 years, range: 18-60 years) who recovered from PCR-confirmed COVID-19. The patients underwent antibody testing on the 28th day of recovery. Sixty-seven patients (60.4%) had antibodies against COVID-19 as well as positive IgM and IgG, and 39.6% of patients were negative for Ab production. Results: The mean ages of the antibody-positive and negative groups were 43 and 29 years, respectively, the age of the positive group was significantly higher than the age of the negative group (P<0.001). The rate of antibody production in symptomatic patients was approximately 4.5 times higher than that in asymptomatic patients. The factors that were associated with antibody production were advanced age (OR=1.1), cough (OR=6.1), fever (OR=4.5), shortness of breath (OR=12.4), myalgia (OR=4.7), increased levels of CRP (OR=32.1), sedimentation rate (OR=17.3), LDH (OR=6.9), D-dimer (OR=10.6), ferritin (OR=29.4), and the presence of lymphopenia (OR=4.2) and thrombocytopenia (OR=7.1). Conclusion: The finding that a substantial number of patients recovering from COVID-19 did not develop antibody response suggests that these patients are still at risk for reinfection. In addition, patients who have experienced symptomatic disease course, advanced age and developed higher inflammatory response may be better candidates for plasma donation.

References

  • 1. Lv H, Wu NC, Tsang OT, Yuan M, Perera RAPM, Leung WS, et al. Cross-reactive Antibody Response between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV Infections. Cell Rep. 2020 Jun 2;31(9):107725. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107725. Epub 2020 May 18. PMID: 32426212; PMCID: PMC7231734.
  • 2. Huang AT, Garcia-Carreras B, Hitchings MDT, Yang B, Katzelnick LC, Rattigan SM, et al. A systematic review of antibody mediated immunity to coronaviruses: kinetics, correlates of protection, and association with severity. Nat Commun. 2020 Sep 17;11(1):4704. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-18450-4. PMID: 32943637; PMCID: PMC7499300.
  • 3. Mathur G, Mathur S. Antibody Testing for COVID-19. Am J Clin Pathol. 2020 Jun 8;154(1):1-3. doi: 10.1093/ajcp/aqaa082. PMID: 32412044; PMCID: PMC7239247.
  • 4. Lipsitch M, Kahn R, Mina MJ. Antibody testing will enhance the power and accuracy of COVID-19-prevention trials. Nat Med. 2020 Jun;26(6):818-9. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-0887-3. PMID: 32341581.
  • 5. Yi Y, Lagniton PNP, Ye S, Li E, Xu RH. COVID-19: what has been learned and to be learned about the novel coronavirus disease. Int J Biol Sci. 2020 Mar 15;16(10):1753-66. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.45134. PMID: 32226295; PMCID: PMC7098028.
  • 6. T. C. Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Services, Department of Blood and Blood Products / COVID-19 Immun (Convelesan) Plasma Supply and Clinical Use Guide, Available at: https://dosyamerkez.saglik.gov.tr/Eklenti/37341,COVID-19-immun-konvalesan-plazma-tedarik-ve-klinik-kullanim-rehberi-guncel--r1-v1pdf.pdf?0 (Accessed, July 4, 2020)
  • 7. Tong PB, Lin LY, Tran TH. Coronaviruses pandemics: Can neutralizing antibodies help? Life Sci. 2020 Aug 15;255:117836. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117836. Epub 2020 May 22. PMID: 32450171; PMCID: PMC7243778.
  • 8. Van Elslande J, Houben E, Depypere M, Brackenier A, Desmet S, André E, et al. Diagnostic performance of seven rapid IgG/IgM antibody tests and the Euroimmun IgA/IgG ELISA in COVID-19 patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020 Aug;26(8):1082-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2020.05.023. Epub 2020 May 28. PMID: 32473953; PMCID: PMC7255746.
  • 9. Imai K, Tabata S, Ikeda M, Noguchi S, Kitagawa Y, Matuoka M, et al. Clinical evaluation of an immunochromatographic IgM/IgG antibody assay and chest computed tomography for the diagnosis of COVID-19. J Clin Virol. 2020 Jul;128:104393. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104393. Epub 2020 Apr 30. PMID: 32387968; PMCID: PMC7191278.
  • 10. Li Z, Yi Y, Luo X, Xiong N, Liu Y, Li S, et al. Development and clinical application of a rapid IgM-IgG combined antibody test for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis. J Med Virol. 2020 Sep;92(9):1518-24. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25727. Epub 2020 Apr 13. PMID: 32104917; PMCID: PMC7228300.
  • 11. Beeching NJ, Fletcher TE, Beadsworth MBJ. COVID-19: testing times. BMJ. 2020 Apr 8;369:m1403. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1403. PMID: 32269032.
  • 12. Amanat F, Stadlbauer D, Strohmeier S, Nguyen THO, Chromikova V, McMahon M, et al. A serological assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in humans.medRxiv [Preprint]. 2020 Apr 16:2020.03.17.20037713. doi: 10.1101/2020.03.17.20037713. Update in: Nat Med. 2020 May 12: PMID: 32511441; PMCID: PMC7239062.
  • 13. Long QX, Tang XJ, Shi QL, Li Q, Deng HJ, Yuan J, et al. Clinical and immunological assessment of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Nat Med. 2020 Aug;26(8):1200-4. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-0965-6. Epub 2020 Jun 18. PMID: 32555424.
  • 14. Lin YC, Cheng CY, Chen CP, Cheng SH, Chang SY, Hsueh PR. A case of transient existence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the respiratory tract with the absence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Jul;96:464-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.070. Epub 2020 May 26. PMID: 32470604; PMCID: PMC7250069.

Covid-19 Hastalarında Antikor Yanıt Oranı ve Bu Orana Etki Eden Faktörler

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 9, 832 - 837, 01.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.867695

Abstract

Özet AMAÇ: SARS-CoV-2 antikorlarının hangi klinik formda ve ne ölçüde bağışıklık yanıtı oluştuğu ve geçirilmiş enfeksiyon ile elde edilen bu antikorların reenfeksiyona karşı tam olarak koruyucu olup olmadığı henüz bilinmemektedir. Çalışmamızda, COVID-19 enfeksiyonu sonrasında iyileşenlerin antikor pozitiflik oranını ve bu hastalarda antikor oluşumuna etki eden faktörleri araştırmayı hedefledik. YÖNTEMLER ve BULGULAR: Çalışmamıza, daha önce PCR testi ile doğrulanmış, klinik iyileşmenin 28. gününde antikor bakılan, 18-60 yaş arası 111 erkek hasta kabul edildi. 67 hastada antikor pozitifliği saptandı ve bunların tümünde hem IgM ve hem de IgG pozitifti. Çalışmaya alınan hastaların ortalama yaşları 34 yıldı, antikor cevabı verenlerin yaş ortalaması 43 yıl iken, antikor yanıtı oluşturamayanların yaş ortalaması ise 29 yıl olarak hesaplandı. Semptomatik hastalarda antikor oluşturma oranı, asemptomatik hastalara göre yaklaşık 4,5 kat fazlaydı. SONUÇ: İleri yaş, öksürük, ateş, nefes darlığı ve miyalji gibi semptomların varlığı, CRP, sedim, LDH, D-dimer ve ferritin değerlerinde yükseklik, lenfopeni ve trombositopeni varlığı, antikor yanıtına etki eden faktörlerdir. Hastalığı geçirenlerin önemli bir kısmında antikor yanıtı oluşmaması, reenfeksiyon riski olduğunu gösterir. Ayrıca hastalığı semptomatik olarak geçiren ve kan değerlerinde inflamatuvar parametreleri daha yüksek olan hastalara, plazma bağışına teşvik aşamasında öncelik verilebilir.

References

  • 1. Lv H, Wu NC, Tsang OT, Yuan M, Perera RAPM, Leung WS, et al. Cross-reactive Antibody Response between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV Infections. Cell Rep. 2020 Jun 2;31(9):107725. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107725. Epub 2020 May 18. PMID: 32426212; PMCID: PMC7231734.
  • 2. Huang AT, Garcia-Carreras B, Hitchings MDT, Yang B, Katzelnick LC, Rattigan SM, et al. A systematic review of antibody mediated immunity to coronaviruses: kinetics, correlates of protection, and association with severity. Nat Commun. 2020 Sep 17;11(1):4704. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-18450-4. PMID: 32943637; PMCID: PMC7499300.
  • 3. Mathur G, Mathur S. Antibody Testing for COVID-19. Am J Clin Pathol. 2020 Jun 8;154(1):1-3. doi: 10.1093/ajcp/aqaa082. PMID: 32412044; PMCID: PMC7239247.
  • 4. Lipsitch M, Kahn R, Mina MJ. Antibody testing will enhance the power and accuracy of COVID-19-prevention trials. Nat Med. 2020 Jun;26(6):818-9. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-0887-3. PMID: 32341581.
  • 5. Yi Y, Lagniton PNP, Ye S, Li E, Xu RH. COVID-19: what has been learned and to be learned about the novel coronavirus disease. Int J Biol Sci. 2020 Mar 15;16(10):1753-66. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.45134. PMID: 32226295; PMCID: PMC7098028.
  • 6. T. C. Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Services, Department of Blood and Blood Products / COVID-19 Immun (Convelesan) Plasma Supply and Clinical Use Guide, Available at: https://dosyamerkez.saglik.gov.tr/Eklenti/37341,COVID-19-immun-konvalesan-plazma-tedarik-ve-klinik-kullanim-rehberi-guncel--r1-v1pdf.pdf?0 (Accessed, July 4, 2020)
  • 7. Tong PB, Lin LY, Tran TH. Coronaviruses pandemics: Can neutralizing antibodies help? Life Sci. 2020 Aug 15;255:117836. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117836. Epub 2020 May 22. PMID: 32450171; PMCID: PMC7243778.
  • 8. Van Elslande J, Houben E, Depypere M, Brackenier A, Desmet S, André E, et al. Diagnostic performance of seven rapid IgG/IgM antibody tests and the Euroimmun IgA/IgG ELISA in COVID-19 patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020 Aug;26(8):1082-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2020.05.023. Epub 2020 May 28. PMID: 32473953; PMCID: PMC7255746.
  • 9. Imai K, Tabata S, Ikeda M, Noguchi S, Kitagawa Y, Matuoka M, et al. Clinical evaluation of an immunochromatographic IgM/IgG antibody assay and chest computed tomography for the diagnosis of COVID-19. J Clin Virol. 2020 Jul;128:104393. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104393. Epub 2020 Apr 30. PMID: 32387968; PMCID: PMC7191278.
  • 10. Li Z, Yi Y, Luo X, Xiong N, Liu Y, Li S, et al. Development and clinical application of a rapid IgM-IgG combined antibody test for SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosis. J Med Virol. 2020 Sep;92(9):1518-24. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25727. Epub 2020 Apr 13. PMID: 32104917; PMCID: PMC7228300.
  • 11. Beeching NJ, Fletcher TE, Beadsworth MBJ. COVID-19: testing times. BMJ. 2020 Apr 8;369:m1403. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1403. PMID: 32269032.
  • 12. Amanat F, Stadlbauer D, Strohmeier S, Nguyen THO, Chromikova V, McMahon M, et al. A serological assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in humans.medRxiv [Preprint]. 2020 Apr 16:2020.03.17.20037713. doi: 10.1101/2020.03.17.20037713. Update in: Nat Med. 2020 May 12: PMID: 32511441; PMCID: PMC7239062.
  • 13. Long QX, Tang XJ, Shi QL, Li Q, Deng HJ, Yuan J, et al. Clinical and immunological assessment of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Nat Med. 2020 Aug;26(8):1200-4. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-0965-6. Epub 2020 Jun 18. PMID: 32555424.
  • 14. Lin YC, Cheng CY, Chen CP, Cheng SH, Chang SY, Hsueh PR. A case of transient existence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the respiratory tract with the absence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Jul;96:464-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.070. Epub 2020 May 26. PMID: 32470604; PMCID: PMC7250069.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Infectious Diseases
Journal Section Research article
Authors

Semiha ÇELİK EKİNCİ (Primary Author)
Sağlık Bilimleri Üniversitesi, Sultan 2. Abdulhamid Han Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi
0000-0002-6264-1685
Türkiye


Bengü ŞAYLAN
Sağlık Bilimleri Üniversitesi, Sultan 2. Abdulhamid Han Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi
0000-0002-5922-0847
Türkiye

Publication Date September 1, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 9

Cite

Bibtex @research article { josam867695, journal = {Journal of Surgery and Medicine}, issn = {}, eissn = {2602-2079}, address = {jsurgmed@gmail.com}, publisher = {Fatih BAŞAK}, year = {2021}, volume = {5}, pages = {832 - 837}, doi = {10.28982/josam.867695}, title = {The rate and associated factors with antibody response in patients with COVID-19 infection}, key = {cite}, author = {Çelik Ekinci, Semiha and Şaylan, Bengü} }
APA Çelik Ekinci, S. & Şaylan, B. (2021). The rate and associated factors with antibody response in patients with COVID-19 infection . Journal of Surgery and Medicine , 5 (9) , 832-837 . DOI: 10.28982/josam.867695
MLA Çelik Ekinci, S. , Şaylan, B. "The rate and associated factors with antibody response in patients with COVID-19 infection" . Journal of Surgery and Medicine 5 (2021 ): 832-837 <http://jsurgmed.com/en/pub/issue/64812/867695>
Chicago Çelik Ekinci, S. , Şaylan, B. "The rate and associated factors with antibody response in patients with COVID-19 infection". Journal of Surgery and Medicine 5 (2021 ): 832-837
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The rate and associated factors with antibody response in patients with COVID-19 infection AU - Semiha Çelik Ekinci , Bengü Şaylan Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.28982/josam.867695 DO - 10.28982/josam.867695 T2 - Journal of Surgery and Medicine JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 832 EP - 837 VL - 5 IS - 9 SN - -2602-2079 M3 - doi: 10.28982/josam.867695 UR - https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.867695 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Surgery and Medicine The rate and associated factors with antibody response in patients with COVID-19 infection %A Semiha Çelik Ekinci , Bengü Şaylan %T The rate and associated factors with antibody response in patients with COVID-19 infection %D 2021 %J Journal of Surgery and Medicine %P -2602-2079 %V 5 %N 9 %R doi: 10.28982/josam.867695 %U 10.28982/josam.867695
ISNAD Çelik Ekinci, Semiha , Şaylan, Bengü . "The rate and associated factors with antibody response in patients with COVID-19 infection". Journal of Surgery and Medicine 5 / 9 (September 2021): 832-837 . https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.867695
AMA Çelik Ekinci S. , Şaylan B. The rate and associated factors with antibody response in patients with COVID-19 infection. J Surg Med. 2021; 5(9): 832-837.
Vancouver Çelik Ekinci S. , Şaylan B. The rate and associated factors with antibody response in patients with COVID-19 infection. Journal of Surgery and Medicine. 2021; 5(9): 832-837.
IEEE S. Çelik Ekinci and B. Şaylan , "The rate and associated factors with antibody response in patients with COVID-19 infection", Journal of Surgery and Medicine, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 832-837, Sep. 2021, doi:10.28982/josam.867695

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