Research Article
PDF Zotero Mendeley EndNote BibTex Cite

Fear of coronavirus in intensive care nurses: A cross-sectional study

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 4, 419 - 423, 01.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.938582

Abstract

Background/Aim: The COVID-19 pandemic has had negative effects on healthcare workers and caused burnout and psychosocial problems, endangering their mental health. This study aimed to reveal the COVID-19 fears of intensive care nurses during the pandemic. Methods: The data of this cross-sectional study were collected with the participation of 128 nurses working in the intensive care units of two public hospitals between October 2020 and November 2020. The Nurse Identification Form and the Fear of COVID-19 Scale were used in data collection. The online survey forms were delivered to the nurses through WhatsApp groups to protect the health of both researchers and participants during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: The nurses’ mean COVID-19 fear scale score was found to be 22.7 (5.1). The mean scale scores differed at statistically significant levels, depending on the education status and the number of patients per nurse in one single shift (P<0.05). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic is a cause of stress and fear for nurses and other healthcare workers. During the COVID-19 pandemic process, it is crucial to assess the fears and coping skills of intensive care nurses; the nurses should also be supported physiologically, psychologically, and sociologically. New studies are needed to reveal the effectiveness of support services related to emotion management and infection control in nurses.

References

  • 1. Burki TK. Coronavirus in China. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;8(3):238.
  • 2. Cui S, Jiang Y, Shi Q, Zhang L, Kong D, Qian M. Impact of COVID-19 on psychology of nurses working in the emergency and fever outpatient: A cross-sectional survey. BMC Psychiatry. 2020. (Preprint) doi: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-20777/v1
  • 3. World Health Organization (WHO), 2020. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/ Accessed May 17, 2021.
  • 4. World Health Organization (WHO), 2020. Keep health workers safe to keep patients safe: WHO. Accessed January 8, 2021. Available from: https://www.who.int/news/item/17-09-2020-keep-health-workers-safe-to-keep-patients-safe-who
  • 5. CDC COVID Data Tracker. 2021. Accessed January 3, 2021. Available from: https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#health-care-personnel
  • 6. https://tr.euronews.com/2020/04/29/sagl-k-bakan-koca-covid-19-la-mucadelede-gelinen-son-noktay-degerlendiriyor. Accessed January 3, 2021.
  • 7. China Central Disease Control (CDC). 2020. Vital Surveillances: The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) — China. Accessed December 25, 2020. Available from: http://weekly.chinacdc.cn/article/id/e53946e2-c6c4-41e9-9a9b-fea8db1a8f51
  • 8. Liu YE, Zhai ZC, Han YH, Liu YL, Liu FP, Hu DY. Experiences of front-line nurses combating coronavirus disease-2019 in China: A qualitative analysis. Public Health Nurs. 2020;37:757–63. doi: 10.1111/phn.12768
  • 9. Shanafelt T, Ripp J, Trockel M. Understanding and addressing sources of anxiety among health care professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA. 2020;323(21):33-4. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.5893.
  • 10. Zerbini G, Ebigbo A, Reicherts P, Kunz M, Messman H. Psychosocial burden of healthcare professionals in times of COVID-19 – a survey conducted at the University Hospital Augsburg. GMS German Medical Science. 2020;18:1-9.
  • 11. Labrague LJ, De los Santo JAA. Fear of COVID-19, psychological distress, work satisfaction and turnover intention among frontline nurses. J Nurs Manag. 2020;00:1–9. doi: 10.1111/jonm.13168
  • 12. Ahorsu DK, Lin CY, Imani V, Saffari M, Griffiths MD, Pakpour AH. The fear of COVID-19 scale: development and ınitial validation. Int J Ment Health Ad. 2020;1-9. doi: 10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8
  • 13. Bakioğlu F, Korkmaz O, Ercan H. Fear of COVID-19 and positivity: mediating role of ıntolerance of uncertainty, depression, anxiety, and stress. Int J Ment Health Ad. 2020;1-14. doi: 10.1007/s11469-020-00331-y
  • 14. Quigley AL, Stone H, Nguyen PY, Chughtai AA, MacIntyre CR. Estimating the burden of COVID-19 on the Australian healthcare workers and health system during the first six months of the pandemic. Int J Nurs Stud. 2020;114:103811. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103811.
  • 15. Bandyopadhyay S, Baticulon RE, Kadhum M, Alser M, Ojuka DK, Badereddin Y. Infection and mortality of healthcare workers worldwide from COVID-19: a scoping review. BMJ Global Health. 2020;5:e003097. doi: 10.1136/ bmjgh-2020-003097
  • 16. Kambhampati AK, O’Halloran AC, Whitaker M, Magill SS, Chea N, Chai SJ, et al. COVID-19–associated hospitalizations among health care personnel — COVID-NET. MMWR. 2020;69:43. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7659917/
  • 17. Semerci R, Kudubeş AA, Eşref FÇ. Assessment of Turkish oncology nurses’ knowledge regarding COVID-19 during the current outbreak in Turkey. Support Care Cancer. 2021;29:1999-2006. doi: 10.1007/s00520-020-05700-w.
  • 18. Lombardi A, Consonni D, Carugno M, Bozzi G, Mangioni D, Muscatello A, et al. Characteristics of 1573 healthcare workers who underwent nasopharyngeal swab testing for SARS-CoV-2 in Milan, Lombardy, Italy. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020; 26(10):1413e9-13. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2020.06.013
  • 19. Eyre DW, Lumley SF, O'Donnell D, Campbell M, Sims E, Lawson E, et al. Differential occupational risks to healthcare workers from SARS-CoV-2 observed during a prospective observational study. ELife. 2020;9:e60675. doi: 10.7554/eLife.60675
  • 20. Hendy A, Abozeid A, Sallam G, Fattah HAA, Reshia FAA. Predictive factors affecting stress among nurses providing care at COVID-19 isolation hospitals at Egypt. Nurs Open. 2021;8:498–505. doi: 10.1002/nop2.652
  • 21. Luceño-Moreno L, Talavera-Velasco B, García-Albuerne Y, Martín-García, J. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, depression, levels of resilience and burnout in Spanish Health Personnel during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17:5514. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17155514
  • 22. Pouralizadeh M, Bostani Z, Maroufizadeh S, Ghanbari A, Khoshbakht M, Alavi SA, et al. Anxiety and depression and the related factors in nurses of Guilan University of Medical Sciences hospitals during COVID-19: A web-based cross-sectional study. Int J Africa Nurs Sci. 2020;13:100233. doi: 10.1016/j.ijans.2020.100233
  • 23. Halcomb E, McInnes S, Williams A, Ashley C, James S, Fernandez R, et al. The experiences of primary healthcare nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2020;52(5):553–63. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12589
  • 24. Hu D, Kong Y, Li W, Han Q, Zhang X, Zhu LX, et al. Frontline nurses’ burnout, anxiety, depression, and fear statuses and their associated factors during the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China: A large-scale cross-sectional study. EClinical Medicine. 2020;24:100424. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100424
  • 25. Yakut E, Kuru Ö, Güngör Y. Determination of the influence of work overload and perceived social support in the effect of the COVID-19 fears of healthcare personnel on their burnout by structural equation modelling. Ekev Akademi Dergisi. 2020;24:83.
  • 26. Bruyneel A, Gallani MC, Tack J, d’Hondt A, Canipel S, Franck S, et al. Impact of COVID-19 on nursing time in intensive care units in Belgium. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2021;62:102967. doi: 10.1016/j.iccn.2020.102967
  • 27. Tayyib N, Alsolami F. Measuring the extent of stress and fear among Registered Nurses in KSA during the COVID-19 Outbreak. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences. 2020;15(5):410-16.
  • 28. Gonzales-Gil MT, González-Blázquez C, Parro-Moreno AI, Pedraz-Marcos A, Palmar-Santos A, Otero-García L, et al. Nurses’ perceptions and demands regarding COVID-19 care delivery in critical care units and hospital emergency services. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2021;62:102966. doi: 10.1016/j.iccn.2020.102966
  • 29. Karasu F, Çapur EÖ. An intensive care nurse in the forefront of the epidemic while increasing cases of Covid-19: “HEROES IN FRONT-LINE”. Yoğun Bakım Hemşireliği Dergisi. 2020;24(1):11-4.
  • 30. Yifan T, Ying L, Chunhong G, Jing S, Rong W, Zhenyu L. Symptom cluster of ICU nurses treating COVID-19 pneumonia patients in Wuhan, China. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2020;60(1):e48-e53. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.039
  • 31. Jahrami H, BaHammam AS, AlGahtani H, Ebrahim A, Faris M, AlEid K, et al. The examination of sleep quality for frontline healthcare workers during the outbreak of COVID-19. Sleep and Breathing. 2020. doi: 10.1007/s11325-020-02135-9
  • 32. Qi J, Xu J, Li BZ, Huang JS, Yang Y, Zhang ZT, et al. The evaluation of sleep disturbances for Chinese frontline medical workers under the outbreak of COVID-19. Sleep Medicine. 2020;72:1e4. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2020.05.023
  • 33. Sunjaya DK, Herawati DMD, Siregar AYM. Depressive, anxiety, and burnout symptoms on health care personnel at a month after COVID-19 outbreak in Indonesia: A documentary research using rasch model analysis. BMC Public Health. 2020. doi: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-45413/v1
  • 34. Beidel DC, Bulik CM, Stanley MA. Abnormal psychology. Boston: Pearson; 2014.
  • 35. Islam S, Sarkar T, Khan SH, Kamal AHM, Hasan SMM, Kabir A, et al. COVID-19–related infodemic and ıts ımpact on public health: a global social media analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;103(4), 1621–9. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0812
  • 36. Yalçın A. COVID-19 sürecinde yoğun bakım yönetimi. Medical Research Reports. 2020;3(Supp 1):66-85.

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 4, 419 - 423, 01.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.938582

Abstract

References

  • 1. Burki TK. Coronavirus in China. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;8(3):238.
  • 2. Cui S, Jiang Y, Shi Q, Zhang L, Kong D, Qian M. Impact of COVID-19 on psychology of nurses working in the emergency and fever outpatient: A cross-sectional survey. BMC Psychiatry. 2020. (Preprint) doi: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-20777/v1
  • 3. World Health Organization (WHO), 2020. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/ Accessed May 17, 2021.
  • 4. World Health Organization (WHO), 2020. Keep health workers safe to keep patients safe: WHO. Accessed January 8, 2021. Available from: https://www.who.int/news/item/17-09-2020-keep-health-workers-safe-to-keep-patients-safe-who
  • 5. CDC COVID Data Tracker. 2021. Accessed January 3, 2021. Available from: https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#health-care-personnel
  • 6. https://tr.euronews.com/2020/04/29/sagl-k-bakan-koca-covid-19-la-mucadelede-gelinen-son-noktay-degerlendiriyor. Accessed January 3, 2021.
  • 7. China Central Disease Control (CDC). 2020. Vital Surveillances: The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) — China. Accessed December 25, 2020. Available from: http://weekly.chinacdc.cn/article/id/e53946e2-c6c4-41e9-9a9b-fea8db1a8f51
  • 8. Liu YE, Zhai ZC, Han YH, Liu YL, Liu FP, Hu DY. Experiences of front-line nurses combating coronavirus disease-2019 in China: A qualitative analysis. Public Health Nurs. 2020;37:757–63. doi: 10.1111/phn.12768
  • 9. Shanafelt T, Ripp J, Trockel M. Understanding and addressing sources of anxiety among health care professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA. 2020;323(21):33-4. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.5893.
  • 10. Zerbini G, Ebigbo A, Reicherts P, Kunz M, Messman H. Psychosocial burden of healthcare professionals in times of COVID-19 – a survey conducted at the University Hospital Augsburg. GMS German Medical Science. 2020;18:1-9.
  • 11. Labrague LJ, De los Santo JAA. Fear of COVID-19, psychological distress, work satisfaction and turnover intention among frontline nurses. J Nurs Manag. 2020;00:1–9. doi: 10.1111/jonm.13168
  • 12. Ahorsu DK, Lin CY, Imani V, Saffari M, Griffiths MD, Pakpour AH. The fear of COVID-19 scale: development and ınitial validation. Int J Ment Health Ad. 2020;1-9. doi: 10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8
  • 13. Bakioğlu F, Korkmaz O, Ercan H. Fear of COVID-19 and positivity: mediating role of ıntolerance of uncertainty, depression, anxiety, and stress. Int J Ment Health Ad. 2020;1-14. doi: 10.1007/s11469-020-00331-y
  • 14. Quigley AL, Stone H, Nguyen PY, Chughtai AA, MacIntyre CR. Estimating the burden of COVID-19 on the Australian healthcare workers and health system during the first six months of the pandemic. Int J Nurs Stud. 2020;114:103811. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103811.
  • 15. Bandyopadhyay S, Baticulon RE, Kadhum M, Alser M, Ojuka DK, Badereddin Y. Infection and mortality of healthcare workers worldwide from COVID-19: a scoping review. BMJ Global Health. 2020;5:e003097. doi: 10.1136/ bmjgh-2020-003097
  • 16. Kambhampati AK, O’Halloran AC, Whitaker M, Magill SS, Chea N, Chai SJ, et al. COVID-19–associated hospitalizations among health care personnel — COVID-NET. MMWR. 2020;69:43. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7659917/
  • 17. Semerci R, Kudubeş AA, Eşref FÇ. Assessment of Turkish oncology nurses’ knowledge regarding COVID-19 during the current outbreak in Turkey. Support Care Cancer. 2021;29:1999-2006. doi: 10.1007/s00520-020-05700-w.
  • 18. Lombardi A, Consonni D, Carugno M, Bozzi G, Mangioni D, Muscatello A, et al. Characteristics of 1573 healthcare workers who underwent nasopharyngeal swab testing for SARS-CoV-2 in Milan, Lombardy, Italy. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020; 26(10):1413e9-13. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2020.06.013
  • 19. Eyre DW, Lumley SF, O'Donnell D, Campbell M, Sims E, Lawson E, et al. Differential occupational risks to healthcare workers from SARS-CoV-2 observed during a prospective observational study. ELife. 2020;9:e60675. doi: 10.7554/eLife.60675
  • 20. Hendy A, Abozeid A, Sallam G, Fattah HAA, Reshia FAA. Predictive factors affecting stress among nurses providing care at COVID-19 isolation hospitals at Egypt. Nurs Open. 2021;8:498–505. doi: 10.1002/nop2.652
  • 21. Luceño-Moreno L, Talavera-Velasco B, García-Albuerne Y, Martín-García, J. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, depression, levels of resilience and burnout in Spanish Health Personnel during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17:5514. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17155514
  • 22. Pouralizadeh M, Bostani Z, Maroufizadeh S, Ghanbari A, Khoshbakht M, Alavi SA, et al. Anxiety and depression and the related factors in nurses of Guilan University of Medical Sciences hospitals during COVID-19: A web-based cross-sectional study. Int J Africa Nurs Sci. 2020;13:100233. doi: 10.1016/j.ijans.2020.100233
  • 23. Halcomb E, McInnes S, Williams A, Ashley C, James S, Fernandez R, et al. The experiences of primary healthcare nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2020;52(5):553–63. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12589
  • 24. Hu D, Kong Y, Li W, Han Q, Zhang X, Zhu LX, et al. Frontline nurses’ burnout, anxiety, depression, and fear statuses and their associated factors during the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China: A large-scale cross-sectional study. EClinical Medicine. 2020;24:100424. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100424
  • 25. Yakut E, Kuru Ö, Güngör Y. Determination of the influence of work overload and perceived social support in the effect of the COVID-19 fears of healthcare personnel on their burnout by structural equation modelling. Ekev Akademi Dergisi. 2020;24:83.
  • 26. Bruyneel A, Gallani MC, Tack J, d’Hondt A, Canipel S, Franck S, et al. Impact of COVID-19 on nursing time in intensive care units in Belgium. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2021;62:102967. doi: 10.1016/j.iccn.2020.102967
  • 27. Tayyib N, Alsolami F. Measuring the extent of stress and fear among Registered Nurses in KSA during the COVID-19 Outbreak. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences. 2020;15(5):410-16.
  • 28. Gonzales-Gil MT, González-Blázquez C, Parro-Moreno AI, Pedraz-Marcos A, Palmar-Santos A, Otero-García L, et al. Nurses’ perceptions and demands regarding COVID-19 care delivery in critical care units and hospital emergency services. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2021;62:102966. doi: 10.1016/j.iccn.2020.102966
  • 29. Karasu F, Çapur EÖ. An intensive care nurse in the forefront of the epidemic while increasing cases of Covid-19: “HEROES IN FRONT-LINE”. Yoğun Bakım Hemşireliği Dergisi. 2020;24(1):11-4.
  • 30. Yifan T, Ying L, Chunhong G, Jing S, Rong W, Zhenyu L. Symptom cluster of ICU nurses treating COVID-19 pneumonia patients in Wuhan, China. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2020;60(1):e48-e53. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.039
  • 31. Jahrami H, BaHammam AS, AlGahtani H, Ebrahim A, Faris M, AlEid K, et al. The examination of sleep quality for frontline healthcare workers during the outbreak of COVID-19. Sleep and Breathing. 2020. doi: 10.1007/s11325-020-02135-9
  • 32. Qi J, Xu J, Li BZ, Huang JS, Yang Y, Zhang ZT, et al. The evaluation of sleep disturbances for Chinese frontline medical workers under the outbreak of COVID-19. Sleep Medicine. 2020;72:1e4. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2020.05.023
  • 33. Sunjaya DK, Herawati DMD, Siregar AYM. Depressive, anxiety, and burnout symptoms on health care personnel at a month after COVID-19 outbreak in Indonesia: A documentary research using rasch model analysis. BMC Public Health. 2020. doi: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-45413/v1
  • 34. Beidel DC, Bulik CM, Stanley MA. Abnormal psychology. Boston: Pearson; 2014.
  • 35. Islam S, Sarkar T, Khan SH, Kamal AHM, Hasan SMM, Kabir A, et al. COVID-19–related infodemic and ıts ımpact on public health: a global social media analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;103(4), 1621–9. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0812
  • 36. Yalçın A. COVID-19 sürecinde yoğun bakım yönetimi. Medical Research Reports. 2020;3(Supp 1):66-85.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Health Care Sciences and Services, Critical Care Medicine
Journal Section Research article
Authors

Figen DIĞIN (Primary Author)
KIRKLARELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-1861-0221
Türkiye


Zeynep KIZILCIK ÖZKAN
TRAKYA UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-1892-241X
Türkiye


Fatma GÜÇLÜ
Edirne Sultan 1st Murat State Hospital
0000-0001-9743-390X
Türkiye


Gözde EROL
Kırklareli Training and Research Hospital
0000-0001-8070-3643
Türkiye

Supporting Institution yok
Project Number yok
Thanks yok
Publication Date April 1, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 4

Cite

Bibtex @research article { josam938582, journal = {Journal of Surgery and Medicine}, issn = {}, eissn = {2602-2079}, address = {jsurgmed@gmail.com}, publisher = {Fatih BAŞAK}, year = {2022}, volume = {6}, pages = {419 - 423}, doi = {10.28982/josam.938582}, title = {Fear of coronavirus in intensive care nurses: A cross-sectional study}, key = {cite}, author = {Dığın, Figen and Kızılcık Özkan, Zeynep and Güçlü, Fatma and Erol, Gözde} }
APA Dığın, F. , Kızılcık Özkan, Z. , Güçlü, F. & Erol, G. (2022). Fear of coronavirus in intensive care nurses: A cross-sectional study . Journal of Surgery and Medicine , 6 (4) , 419-423 . DOI: 10.28982/josam.938582
MLA Dığın, F. , Kızılcık Özkan, Z. , Güçlü, F. , Erol, G. "Fear of coronavirus in intensive care nurses: A cross-sectional study" . Journal of Surgery and Medicine 6 (2022 ): 419-423 <https://jsurgmed.com/en/pub/issue/69115/938582>
Chicago Dığın, F. , Kızılcık Özkan, Z. , Güçlü, F. , Erol, G. "Fear of coronavirus in intensive care nurses: A cross-sectional study". Journal of Surgery and Medicine 6 (2022 ): 419-423
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Fear of coronavirus in intensive care nurses: A cross-sectional study AU - Figen Dığın , Zeynep Kızılcık Özkan , Fatma Güçlü , Gözde Erol Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.28982/josam.938582 DO - 10.28982/josam.938582 T2 - Journal of Surgery and Medicine JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 419 EP - 423 VL - 6 IS - 4 SN - -2602-2079 M3 - doi: 10.28982/josam.938582 UR - https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.938582 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Surgery and Medicine Fear of coronavirus in intensive care nurses: A cross-sectional study %A Figen Dığın , Zeynep Kızılcık Özkan , Fatma Güçlü , Gözde Erol %T Fear of coronavirus in intensive care nurses: A cross-sectional study %D 2022 %J Journal of Surgery and Medicine %P -2602-2079 %V 6 %N 4 %R doi: 10.28982/josam.938582 %U 10.28982/josam.938582
ISNAD Dığın, Figen , Kızılcık Özkan, Zeynep , Güçlü, Fatma , Erol, Gözde . "Fear of coronavirus in intensive care nurses: A cross-sectional study". Journal of Surgery and Medicine 6 / 4 (April 2022): 419-423 . https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.938582
AMA Dığın F. , Kızılcık Özkan Z. , Güçlü F. , Erol G. Fear of coronavirus in intensive care nurses: A cross-sectional study. J Surg Med. 2022; 6(4): 419-423.
Vancouver Dığın F. , Kızılcık Özkan Z. , Güçlü F. , Erol G. Fear of coronavirus in intensive care nurses: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Surgery and Medicine. 2022; 6(4): 419-423.
IEEE F. Dığın , Z. Kızılcık Özkan , F. Güçlü and G. Erol , "Fear of coronavirus in intensive care nurses: A cross-sectional study", Journal of Surgery and Medicine, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 419-423, Apr. 2022, doi:10.28982/josam.938582

The DNS issue is resolved. jsurgmed.com and current publication are fully accessible.

To use the submission system properly, please use one of the following browsers, Chrome or Firefox, with the latest updates.
If you experience problems, it may be necessary to clear the browser cache and history; and disable blocker extensions, i.e., uBlock, of the browsers
Mobile phones are not recommended, please use a personal computer.