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How has the initial lockdown and reopening due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected physical activity level and well-being in Turkey?

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 4, 460 - 464, 01.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.935905

Abstract

Background/Aim: The worldwide spread of COVID-19 caused changes in daily routines. During the lockdown, parks and gyms were closed and access to outdoor areas was limited. After reopening, many restrictions were removed. Since this process may have altered physical activity and well-being levels, this study aimed to explore how physical activity (PA) levels and well-being of Turkish citizens were affected by the initial COVID-19 lockdown and the reopening. Methods: In this prospective, cross-sectional study, participants were asked to complete an online survey twice: first in May 2020 (when initial strictest partial lockdown procedures were applied) and second in July 2020 (after most restrictions had been removed). The online survey consisted of questions related to demographics, PA levels, and well-being. Categorical questions (expressed as either day per week or min per day) were used to assess vigorous and moderate PA, time spent sitting, etc. The WHO-5 Well-Being Index was used to assess well-being. Results: The mean age and the body mass indexes of 94 individuals (52 females, 42 males) were 36.16 (10.04) years and 25.14 (3.82) kg/m2, respectively. During both lockdown and after reopening, low levels of PA and well-being levels above the low mood limit (< 50) were identified. No significant change was found in either any of the PA-related variables or the well-being of participants between the initial and final assessments (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Our results showed that PA levels and well-being of Turkish citizens remained unchanged after the reopening process when compared to the initial lockdown due to COVID-19. These findings may also suggest that reopening was not a sufficient stimulant factor to alter physical activity and well-being. Despite all the negative effects brought on by the pandemic, it is essential to adopt approaches to keep PA levels and well-being high.

References

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  • 2. Sohrabi C, Alsafi Z, O'Neill N, Khan M, Kerwan A, Al-Jabir A, et al. World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Int J Surg. 2020;76:71-6.
  • 3. Lesser IA, Nienhuis CP. The impact of COVID-19 on physical activity behavior and well-being of Canadians. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(11):3899.
  • 4. Dwyer MJ, Pasini M, De Dominicis S, Righi E. Physical activity: Benefits and challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2020;30(7):1291-4.
  • 5. Di Renzo L, Gualtieri P, Pivari F, Soldati L, Attina A, et al. Eating habits and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown: an Italian survey. J Transl Med. 2020;18(1):229.
  • 6. Antunes R, Frontini R, Amaro N, Salvador R, Matos R, Morouço P, et al. Exploring lifestyle habits, physical activity, anxiety and basic psychological needs in a sample of Portuguese adults during COVID-19. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(12):4360.
  • 7. Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: Rapid review of the evidence. Lancet. 2020,395,912–20.
  • 8. Jakovljevic M, Bjedov S, Jaksic N, Jakovljevic I. COVID-19 pandemia and public and global mental health from the perspective of global health security. Psychiatr Danub. 2020;32(1):6-14.
  • 9. Ma QX, Shan H, Zhang HL, Li GM, Yang RM, Chen JM. Potential utilities of mask-wearing and instant hand hygiene for fighting SARS-CoV-2. J Med Virol. 2020;92(9):1567-71.
  • 10. Gallo LA, Gallo TF, Young SL, Moritz KM, Akison LK. The impact of isolation measures due to COVID-19 on energy intake and physical activity levels in Australian university students. Nutrients. 2020;12(6):1865.
  • 11. Maugeri G, Castrogiovanni P, Battaglia G, Pippi R, D’Agata V, Palma A, et al. The impact of physical activity on psychological health during Covid-19 pandemic in Italy. Heliyon. 2020;6(6):e04315.
  • 12. Ding D, Cheng M, Del Pozo Cruz B, Lin T, Sun S, Zhang L, et al. How COVID-19 lockdown and reopening affected daily steps: evidence based on 164,630 person-days of prospectively collected data from Shanghai, China. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2021;18(1):40.
  • 13. Ammar A, Brach M, Trabelsi K, Chtourou H, Boukhris O, Masmoudi L, et al. Effects of COVID-19 home confinement on eating behaviour and physical activity: results of the ECLB-COVID19 international online survey. Nutrients. 2020;12(6):1583.
  • 14. Stanton R, To QG, Khalesi S, Williams SL, Alley SJ, Thwaite TL, et al. Depression, anxiety and stress during COVID-19: associations with changes in physical activity, sleep, tobacco and alcohol use in Australian adults. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(11):4065.
  • 15. Reyes-Olavarria D, Latorre-Roman PA, Guzman-Guzman IP, Jerez-Mayorga D, Caamano-Navarrete F, Delgado-Floody P. Positive and negative changes in food habits, physical activity patterns, and weight status during COVID-19 confinement: associated factors in the Chilean population. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(15):5431.
  • 16. Constandt B, Thibaut E, De Bosscher V, Scheerder J, Ricour M, Willem A. Exercising in times of lockdown: an analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on levels and patterns of exercise among adults in Belgium. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(11):4144.
  • 17. Faulkner J, O'Brien WJ, McGrane B, Wadsworth D, Batten J, Askew CD, et al. Physical activity, mental health and well-being of adults during initial COVID-19 containment strategies: A multi-country cross-sectional analysis. J Sci Med Sport. 2021;24(4):320-6.
  • 18. Olsson SJ, Ekblom Ö, Andersson E, Börjesson M, Kallings LV. Categorical answer modes provide superior validity to open answers when asking for level of physical activity: A cross-sectional study. Scand J Public Health. 2016;44(1):70-6.
  • 19. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Wellbeing measures in primary health care/ the DepCare project. Stockholm, Sweden. 1998 Available from: https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/130750/E60246.pdf. (Cited: 15 April 2021).
  • 20. Eser E, Çevik C, Baydur H, Güneş S, Esgin TA, Öztekin ÇS, et al. Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the WHO-5, in adults and older adults for its use in primary care settings. Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2019;20:e100.
  • 21. Nieman DC, Wentz LM. The compelling link between physical activity and the body's defence system. J Sport Health Sci. 2019;8:201-17.
  • 22. Campbell JP, Turner JE. Debunking the myth of exercise-induced immune suppression: redefining the impact of exercise on immunological health across the lifespan. Front Immunol. 2018;9:1-21.
  • 23. Hamer M, Kivimäki M, Gale CR, Batty GD. Lifestyle risk factors, inflammatory mechanisms, and COVID-19 hospitalization: A community-based cohort study of 387,109 adults in UK. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;87:184-7.
  • 24. Akçay B, Gökmen GY, Keçelioğlu Ş, Keskin E, Türkmen O. Investigation of the effect of COVID-19 outbreak on physical activity, perceived stress, physical activity awareness and exercise barriers: A national study. Lancet. DOI:10.2139/ssrn.3638271 Available from: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3638271
  • 25. Gornicka M, Drywien ME, Zielinska MA, Hamulka J. Dietary and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdowns among polish adults: a cross-sectional online survey PLifeCOVID-19 study. Nutrients. 2020;12(8):2324.

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 4, 460 - 464, 01.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.935905

Abstract

References

  • 1. Baloch S, Baloch MA, Zheng T, Pei X. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2020;250(4):271-8.
  • 2. Sohrabi C, Alsafi Z, O'Neill N, Khan M, Kerwan A, Al-Jabir A, et al. World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Int J Surg. 2020;76:71-6.
  • 3. Lesser IA, Nienhuis CP. The impact of COVID-19 on physical activity behavior and well-being of Canadians. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(11):3899.
  • 4. Dwyer MJ, Pasini M, De Dominicis S, Righi E. Physical activity: Benefits and challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2020;30(7):1291-4.
  • 5. Di Renzo L, Gualtieri P, Pivari F, Soldati L, Attina A, et al. Eating habits and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown: an Italian survey. J Transl Med. 2020;18(1):229.
  • 6. Antunes R, Frontini R, Amaro N, Salvador R, Matos R, Morouço P, et al. Exploring lifestyle habits, physical activity, anxiety and basic psychological needs in a sample of Portuguese adults during COVID-19. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(12):4360.
  • 7. Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: Rapid review of the evidence. Lancet. 2020,395,912–20.
  • 8. Jakovljevic M, Bjedov S, Jaksic N, Jakovljevic I. COVID-19 pandemia and public and global mental health from the perspective of global health security. Psychiatr Danub. 2020;32(1):6-14.
  • 9. Ma QX, Shan H, Zhang HL, Li GM, Yang RM, Chen JM. Potential utilities of mask-wearing and instant hand hygiene for fighting SARS-CoV-2. J Med Virol. 2020;92(9):1567-71.
  • 10. Gallo LA, Gallo TF, Young SL, Moritz KM, Akison LK. The impact of isolation measures due to COVID-19 on energy intake and physical activity levels in Australian university students. Nutrients. 2020;12(6):1865.
  • 11. Maugeri G, Castrogiovanni P, Battaglia G, Pippi R, D’Agata V, Palma A, et al. The impact of physical activity on psychological health during Covid-19 pandemic in Italy. Heliyon. 2020;6(6):e04315.
  • 12. Ding D, Cheng M, Del Pozo Cruz B, Lin T, Sun S, Zhang L, et al. How COVID-19 lockdown and reopening affected daily steps: evidence based on 164,630 person-days of prospectively collected data from Shanghai, China. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2021;18(1):40.
  • 13. Ammar A, Brach M, Trabelsi K, Chtourou H, Boukhris O, Masmoudi L, et al. Effects of COVID-19 home confinement on eating behaviour and physical activity: results of the ECLB-COVID19 international online survey. Nutrients. 2020;12(6):1583.
  • 14. Stanton R, To QG, Khalesi S, Williams SL, Alley SJ, Thwaite TL, et al. Depression, anxiety and stress during COVID-19: associations with changes in physical activity, sleep, tobacco and alcohol use in Australian adults. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(11):4065.
  • 15. Reyes-Olavarria D, Latorre-Roman PA, Guzman-Guzman IP, Jerez-Mayorga D, Caamano-Navarrete F, Delgado-Floody P. Positive and negative changes in food habits, physical activity patterns, and weight status during COVID-19 confinement: associated factors in the Chilean population. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(15):5431.
  • 16. Constandt B, Thibaut E, De Bosscher V, Scheerder J, Ricour M, Willem A. Exercising in times of lockdown: an analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on levels and patterns of exercise among adults in Belgium. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(11):4144.
  • 17. Faulkner J, O'Brien WJ, McGrane B, Wadsworth D, Batten J, Askew CD, et al. Physical activity, mental health and well-being of adults during initial COVID-19 containment strategies: A multi-country cross-sectional analysis. J Sci Med Sport. 2021;24(4):320-6.
  • 18. Olsson SJ, Ekblom Ö, Andersson E, Börjesson M, Kallings LV. Categorical answer modes provide superior validity to open answers when asking for level of physical activity: A cross-sectional study. Scand J Public Health. 2016;44(1):70-6.
  • 19. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Wellbeing measures in primary health care/ the DepCare project. Stockholm, Sweden. 1998 Available from: https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/130750/E60246.pdf. (Cited: 15 April 2021).
  • 20. Eser E, Çevik C, Baydur H, Güneş S, Esgin TA, Öztekin ÇS, et al. Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the WHO-5, in adults and older adults for its use in primary care settings. Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2019;20:e100.
  • 21. Nieman DC, Wentz LM. The compelling link between physical activity and the body's defence system. J Sport Health Sci. 2019;8:201-17.
  • 22. Campbell JP, Turner JE. Debunking the myth of exercise-induced immune suppression: redefining the impact of exercise on immunological health across the lifespan. Front Immunol. 2018;9:1-21.
  • 23. Hamer M, Kivimäki M, Gale CR, Batty GD. Lifestyle risk factors, inflammatory mechanisms, and COVID-19 hospitalization: A community-based cohort study of 387,109 adults in UK. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;87:184-7.
  • 24. Akçay B, Gökmen GY, Keçelioğlu Ş, Keskin E, Türkmen O. Investigation of the effect of COVID-19 outbreak on physical activity, perceived stress, physical activity awareness and exercise barriers: A national study. Lancet. DOI:10.2139/ssrn.3638271 Available from: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3638271
  • 25. Gornicka M, Drywien ME, Zielinska MA, Hamulka J. Dietary and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdowns among polish adults: a cross-sectional online survey PLifeCOVID-19 study. Nutrients. 2020;12(8):2324.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Medicine, Research and Experimental
Journal Section Research article
Authors

Melda SOYSAL TOMRUK (Primary Author)
Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation
0000-0003-2773-5536
Türkiye


Murat TOMRUK
Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation
0000-0002-3941-816X
Türkiye


İsmail ÇALIK
Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Sport Science and Athlete Education Practice and Research Centre
0000-0002-7122-4947
Türkiye

Supporting Institution None
Project Number None
Thanks None
Publication Date April 1, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 4

Cite

Bibtex @research article { josam935905, journal = {Journal of Surgery and Medicine}, issn = {}, eissn = {2602-2079}, address = {jsurgmed@gmail.com}, publisher = {Fatih BAŞAK}, year = {2022}, volume = {6}, pages = {460 - 464}, doi = {10.28982/josam.935905}, title = {How has the initial lockdown and reopening due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected physical activity level and well-being in Turkey?}, key = {cite}, author = {Soysal Tomruk, Melda and Tomruk, Murat and Çalık, İsmail} }
APA Soysal Tomruk, M. , Tomruk, M. & Çalık, İ. (2022). How has the initial lockdown and reopening due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected physical activity level and well-being in Turkey? . Journal of Surgery and Medicine , 6 (4) , 460-464 . DOI: 10.28982/josam.935905
MLA Soysal Tomruk, M. , Tomruk, M. , Çalık, İ. "How has the initial lockdown and reopening due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected physical activity level and well-being in Turkey?" . Journal of Surgery and Medicine 6 (2022 ): 460-464 <https://jsurgmed.com/en/pub/issue/69115/935905>
Chicago Soysal Tomruk, M. , Tomruk, M. , Çalık, İ. "How has the initial lockdown and reopening due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected physical activity level and well-being in Turkey?". Journal of Surgery and Medicine 6 (2022 ): 460-464
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - How has the initial lockdown and reopening due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected physical activity level and well-being in Turkey? AU - Melda Soysal Tomruk , Murat Tomruk , İsmail Çalık Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.28982/josam.935905 DO - 10.28982/josam.935905 T2 - Journal of Surgery and Medicine JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 460 EP - 464 VL - 6 IS - 4 SN - -2602-2079 M3 - doi: 10.28982/josam.935905 UR - https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.935905 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Surgery and Medicine How has the initial lockdown and reopening due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected physical activity level and well-being in Turkey? %A Melda Soysal Tomruk , Murat Tomruk , İsmail Çalık %T How has the initial lockdown and reopening due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected physical activity level and well-being in Turkey? %D 2022 %J Journal of Surgery and Medicine %P -2602-2079 %V 6 %N 4 %R doi: 10.28982/josam.935905 %U 10.28982/josam.935905
ISNAD Soysal Tomruk, Melda , Tomruk, Murat , Çalık, İsmail . "How has the initial lockdown and reopening due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected physical activity level and well-being in Turkey?". Journal of Surgery and Medicine 6 / 4 (April 2022): 460-464 . https://doi.org/10.28982/josam.935905
AMA Soysal Tomruk M. , Tomruk M. , Çalık İ. How has the initial lockdown and reopening due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected physical activity level and well-being in Turkey?. J Surg Med. 2022; 6(4): 460-464.
Vancouver Soysal Tomruk M. , Tomruk M. , Çalık İ. How has the initial lockdown and reopening due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected physical activity level and well-being in Turkey?. Journal of Surgery and Medicine. 2022; 6(4): 460-464.
IEEE M. Soysal Tomruk , M. Tomruk and İ. Çalık , "How has the initial lockdown and reopening due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected physical activity level and well-being in Turkey?", Journal of Surgery and Medicine, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 460-464, Apr. 2022, doi:10.28982/josam.935905

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