Effects of vitamin D treatment on the heart tissue and adropin levels in thyrotoxicosis rats
Keywords:Thyrotoxicosis, Vitamin D, Adropin, L-thyroxine, Heart
Background/Aim: Thyrotoxicosis is a hypermetabolic disease, common in people with iodine deficiency. Cardiac pathologies can be seen in untreated cases. Vitamin D is a supportive therapy for thyrotoxicosis and its deficiency also plays an important role in pathologies including cardiac diseases. Adropin is a peptide hormone regulating the energy homeostasis, and its levels in blood change in cardiac pathologies. Our purpose is to reveal the effects of vitamin D treatment on the heart tissue of rats with thyrotoxicosis and on the adropin levels. Methods: Our study was designed as 25 days. 28 Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 4 groups; Control (3ml of distilled water), Thyrotoxicosis (100μg/day L-thyroxine) Treatment (100μg/day L-thyroxine+200IU /day Vit. D), Vit D (200IU/day Vit. D). Firstly, heart tissues were stained with Masson trichrome method. The preparations were examined under the microscope and evaluated semi-quantitatively. After that, serum adropin levels were measured with ELISA method. Malondialdehyde level of heart tissue was evaluated by spectrophotometry. Heart tissue was evaluated in aspects of fibrosis, congestion, edema and impairment of tissue integrity. Results: All of the evaluation parameters of the heart tissue were found highly significantly increased in thyrotoxicosis group, in contrast to the control and vitamin D group. Despite a decrease in the treatment group, there was no significant difference in the thyrotoxicosis group (P<0.001). Serum adropin levels of all groups were found to be decreased in contrast to the thyrotoxicosis group. Similarly, tissue MDA levels were significantly higher in the thyrotoxicosis group compared to the other groups. Conclusion: Consequently, heart tissue damage and differences in adropin levels were found in rats with thyrotoxicosis. It was observed that supportive vitamin D treatment helps to regulate these effects.
Devereaux D, Tewelde SZ. Hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis. E Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2014;32(2):277-92. doi: 10.1016/j.emc.2013.12.001.
Kut E, Atmaca H. Tirotoksikoz. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine. 2012;29(4S):309-14. doi.org/10.5835/jecm.omu.29.s4.018
Kim D. The Role of Vitamin D in Thyroid Diseases. International journal of molecular sciences. 2017;18(9):1949.doi: 10.3390/ijms18091949.
Akkoyun H, Bayramoğlu M, Suat E, Çelebi F. Atatürk University J. Vet. Sci. D vitamini ve metabolizma için önemi. 2014;9(3):213-9. doi:10.17094/avbd.05043
Paşaoğlu Yağcı H, Deniz R. Serum adropin and nitric oxide levels in missed abortus cases. J Surg Med. 2021;5(1):93-6. doi: 10.28982/josam.867760.
Marczuk N, Cecerska-Heryć E, Jesionowska A, Dołęgowska B. Adropin - physiological and pathophysiological role. Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej (Online). 2016;70(0):981-8. doi: 10.5604/17322693.1220082.
Yu HY, Zhao P, Wu MC, Liu J, Yin W. Serum adropin levels are decreased in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Regulatory peptides. 2014;190-191:46-9. doi: 10.1016/j.regpep.2014.04.001.
Lian W, Gu X, Qin Y, Zheng X. Elevated plasma levels of adropin in heart failure patients. Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan). 2011;50(15):1523-7. doi: 10.2169/internalmedicine.50.5163.
Deng J, Zhao R, Zhang Z, Wang J. Changes in vasoreactivity of rat large- and medium- sized arteries induced by hyperthyroidism. Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie. 2010;62(3):317-22. doi: 10.1016/j.etp.2009.04.007.
Dabak DO, Kuloglu T, Ozercan MR. Effects of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) on adriamycin-induced nephrotoxicity. Renal failure. 2009;31(5):400-5. doi: 10.1080/08860220902883020.
Kuloglu T, Aydin S, Eren MN, Yilmaz M, Sahin I, Kalayci M, et al. Irisin: a potentially candidate marker for myocardial infarction. Peptides. 2014;55:85-91. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2014.02.008.
Esterbauer H, Cheeseman KH. Determination of aldehydic lipid peroxidation products: malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Methods in enzymology. 1990;186:407-21. doi: 10.1016/0076-6879(90)86134-h.
Trzepacz PT, Klein I, Roberts M, Greenhouse J, Levey GS. Graves' disease: an analysis of thyroid hormone levels and hyperthyroid signs and symptoms. The American journal of medicine. 1989;87(5):558-61. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9343(89)80614-x.
Tamer G, Arik S, Tamer I, Coksert D. Relative vitamin D insufficiency in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association. 2011;21(8):891-6. doi: 10.1089/thy.2009.0200.
Bozkurt NC, Karbek B, Ucan B, Sahin M, Cakal E, Ozbek M, et al. The association between severity of vitamin D deficiency and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. 2013;19(3):479-84. doi: 10.4158/ep12376.Or.
Shin DY, Kim KJ, Kim D, Hwang S, Lee EJ. Low serum vitamin D is associated with anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody in autoimmune thyroiditis. Yonsei medical journal. 2014;55(2):476-81. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2014.55.2.476.
Wang X, Quinn PJ. Vitamin E and its function in membranes. Progress in lipid research. 1999;38(4):309-36. doi: 10.1016/s0163-7827(99)00008-9.
Wenclewska S, Szymczak-Pajor I, Drzewoski J, Bunk M, Śliwińska A. Vitamin D supplementation reduces both oxidative DNA damage and insulin resistance in the Elderly with Metabolic Disorders. International journal of molecular sciences. 2019;20(12). doi: 10.3390/ijms20122891.
Kalkan A, Cakmak H, Erturk M, Kalkan K, Uzun F, Tasbulak O, et al. Adropin and Irisin in Patients with Cardiac Cachexia. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia. 2018;111. doi: 10.5935/abc.20180109.
Kumar KG, Trevaskis JL, Lam DD, Sutton GM, Koza RA, Chouljenko VN, et al. Identification of adropin as a secreted factor linking dietary macronutrient intake with energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. Cell metabolism. 2008;8(6):468-81. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2008.10.011.
Yang C, DeMars KM, Candelario-Jalil E. Age-Dependent Decrease in Adropin is associated with reduced levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and increased oxidative stress in the rat brain. Aging and disease. 2018;9(2):322-30. doi: 10.14336/ad.2017.0523.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Hasan Aydın, Ahmet Türk, Abdullah Karadağ
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.