Sexual life changes in pregnant women during COVID-19 outbreak
Keywords:COVID-19, Pregnant women, Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale, Sexual disorder
Background/Aim: Restrictions imposed after the COVID-19 outbreak have had some negative effects on the society and individuals. There are few reports on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, which causes stress on individuals, on sexual activity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sexual activities of pregnant women during these restrictions. Methods: A total of 294 pregnant women between the ages of 18-45 years and their spouses who visited the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic between June 2020, and August 2020 were included in this cross-sectional study. The sexual activities of pregnant women and their spouses were evaluated with the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX). Results: One third of the pregnant women were in their first pregnancy, and 78.2% of those who gave birth before had a vaginal delivery. 38.8% of the pregnant women were in their second trimester. The mean ASEX scores of pregnant women and their partners during the pandemic period were significantly increased compared to the pre-pandemic period (13.47 (3.58) versus 17.01 (5.78), P=0.001, 12.14 (2.98) versus 14.49 (5.02), P=0.001, respectively). Before the pandemic, 64.62% (n=190) of the pregnant women and 51.7% (n=152) of their spouses had a sexual disorder. During the pandemic, this ratio increased in both genders and rose to 80.27% (n=136) in pregnant women and 63.60% (n=187) in their spouses. Conclusion: We observed an increase in sexual dysfunction in both pregnant women and their partners during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, Gao GF. A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):470-3. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30185-9. Epub 2020 Jan 24. Erratum in: Lancet. 2020 Jan 29. PMID: 31986257; PMCID: PMC7135038.
Schiavi MC, Spina V, Zullo MA, Colagiovanni V, Luffarelli P, Rago R, et al. Love in the Time of COVID-19:Sexual Function and Quality of Life Analysis During the Social Distancing Measures in a Group of Italian Reproductive-Age Women. J Sex Med. 2020;17:1407-13.
Nicoli F, Gasparetto A. Italy in a Time of Emergency and Scarce Resources:The Need for Embedding Ethical Reflection in Social and Clinical Settings. J Clin Ethics. 2020;31(1):92-4. PMID: 32213700.
Li W, Li G, Xin C, Wang Y, Yang S. Challenges in the Practice of Sexual Medicine in the Time of COVID-19 in China. J Sex Med. 2020;17:1225-8.
Cao W, Fang Z, Hou G, Han M, Xu X, Dong J, et al. The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Res. 2020;287:112934. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112934. Epub 2020 Mar 20. PMID: 32229390; PMCID: PMC7102633.
Li G, Tang D, Song B, Wang C, Qunshan S, Xu C, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Partner Relationships and Sexual and Reproductive Health:Cross-Sectional, Online Survey Study. J Med Internet Res. 2020;22 (8):e20961.
Ahmed MR, Madny EH, Sayed Ahmed WA. Prevalence of female sexual dysfunction during pregnancy among Egyptian women. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2014;40(4):1023-9. doi: 10.1111/jog.12313. Epub 2014 Mar 10. PMID: 24612115.a
Aslan G, Aslan D, Kizilyar A, Ispahi C, Esen A. A prospective analysis of sexual functions during pregnancy. Int J Impot Res. 2005;17(2):154-7. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijir.3901288. PMID: 15538394.
Fuchs A, Czech I, Sikora J, Fuchs P, Lorek M, Skrzypulec-Plinta V, et al. Sexual Functioning in Pregnant Women. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(21):4216. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16214216. PMID: 31671702; PMCID: PMC6862185.
McGahuey CA, Gelenberg AJ, Laukes CA, Moreno FA, Delgado PL, McKnight KM, Manber R. The Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX): reliability and validity. J Sex Marital Ther. 2000;26(1):25-40. doi: 10.1080/009262300278623. PMID: 10693114.
Soykan A. The reliability and validity of Arizona sexual experiences scale in Turkish ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis. Int J Impot Res. 2004;16:531-4.
Lima CKT, Carvalho PMM, Lima IAAS, Nunes JVAO, Saraiva JS, de Souza RI, et al. The emotional impact of Coronavirus 2019-nCoV (new Coronavirus disease). Psychiatry Res. 2020;287:112915. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112915. Epub 2020 Mar 12. PMID: 32199182; PMCID: PMC7195292.
Li Z, Ge J, Yang M, Feng J, Qiao M, Jiang R, et al. Vicarious traumatization in the general public, members, and non-members of medical teams aiding in COVID-19 control. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;88:916-919. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.03.007. Epub 2020 Mar 10. PMID: 32169498; PMCID: PMC7102670.
Duan L, Zhu G. Psychological interventions for people affected by the COVID-19 epidemic. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(4):300-2. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30073-0. Epub 2020 Feb 19. PMID: 32085840; PMCID: PMC7128328.
Hamilton LD, Meston CM. Chronic stress and sexual function in women. J Sex Med. 2013;10(10):2443-54. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12249. Epub 2013 Jul 10. PMID: 23841462; PMCID: PMC4199300.
Liu S, Han J, Xiao D, Ma C, Chen B. A report on the reproductive health of women after the massive 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2010 Feb;108(2):161-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2009.08.030. Epub 2009 Nov 4. PMID: 19892335.
Hall KS, Kusunoki Y, Gatny H, Barber J. Stress symptoms and frequency of sexual intercourse among young women. J Sex Med. 2014;11(8):1982-90. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12607. Epub 2014 Jun 3. PMID: 24894425; PMCID: PMC4115031.
Yuksel B, Ozgor F. Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on female sexual behavior. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2020;150:98-102.
Jacob L, Smith L, Butler L, Barnett Y, Grabovac I, McDermott D, et al. Challenges in the Practice of Sexual Medicine in the Time of COVID-19 in the United Kingdom. J Sex Med. 2020;17(7):1229-36. doi: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2020.05.001. Epub 2020 May 14. PMID: 32411271; PMCID: PMC7221385.
Erol B, Sanli O, Korkmaz D, Seyhan A, Akman T, Kadioglu A. A cross-sectional study of female sexual function and dysfunction during pregnancy. J Sex Med. 2007;4(5):1381-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00559.x. Epub 2007 Jul 25. PMID: 17651387.
Corbacioglu Esmer A, Akca A, Akbayir O, Goksedef BP, Bakir VL. Female sexual function and associated factors during pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2013;39:1165-72.
Aydin M, Cayonu N, Kadihasanoglu M, Irkilata L, Atilla MK, Kendirci M. Comparison of Sexual Functions in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women. Urol J. 2015;12(5):2339-44. PMID: 26571317.
Anğın AD, Özkaya E, Çetin M, Gün I, Sakin O, Ertekin LT, et al. Comparison of female sexual function and sexual function of their partners between groups of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Ginekol Pol. 2020;91(5):235-239. doi: 10.5603/GP.2020.0062. PMID: 32495927.
al Bustan MA, el Tomi NF, Faiwalla MF, Manav V. Maternal sexuality during pregnancy and after childbirth in Muslim Kuwaiti women. Arch Sex Behav. 1995;24(2):207-15. doi: 10.1007/BF01541581. PMID: 7794108.
Küçükdurmaz F, Efe E, Malkoç Ö, Kolus E, Amasyalı AS, Resim S. Prevalence and correlates of female sexual dysfunction among Turkish pregnant women. Turk J Urol. 2016;42(3):178-83. doi: 10.5152/tud.2016.49207. PMID: 27635293; PMCID: PMC5012445.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Süleyman Eserdağ, Mehtap Yücedağ, Ali Doğukan Anğın, Özgür Yılmaz, Lokman Tekin Ertekin, Pınar Anğın
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.