Childhood obesity: Is it related to feeding type of the infant?

Authors

Keywords:

obesity, Breast milk, Formula, Infant

Abstract

Aim: The prevalence of childhood obesity has risen currently, and the relationship between feeding types in the infancy period and childhood obesity remains controversial. It is aimed to investigate the impact of feeding practices in the first six months of life on early childhood obesity in exclusively breast-fed, exclusively formula-fed, and mixed (breast milk and formula) fed Turkish infants. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics at Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital with 545 children aged between 2-5 years. We asked the parents various questions to determine the feeding patterns during infancy. Three groups were formed: Exclusively breastfeed, exclusively formula-fed and the mixed (breast milk and formula) fed group. Obesity rates were determined according to body mass index (BMI) and compared. Results: Among a total of 545 children, with a mean age of 3.4 years, there were 285 (52,3%) females. Evaluation based on BMI revealed that the obesity (≥95th percentile) rate was 8.8% and the percentage of overweight children was significantly higher in the only formula-fed group (28.2%) compared to those who were only breast-fed (16.8%) (P=0.009). Conclusions: Our findings showed that feeding the child exclusively with formula during the first six months of life may increase body weight during early childhood more than feeding solely breast milk. Therefore, it is necessary to promote breastfeeding to prevent childhood obesity.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Akıncı A. Obesity in children. Children's Endocrinology and Diabetes Association Hand Book 2018;1:5-6.

Lobstein T, Jackson-Leach R, Moodie ML, Hall DK, Gortmaker SL, Swinburn BA, et al. Child and adolescent obesity: part of a bigger picture. The Lancet. 2015;385(9986):2510–20. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61746-3.

Santas F, Santas G. Prevalence of pre-school children for overweight/obesity in Turkey. World Journal Pediatrics. 2018;14:77–83. doi: 10.1007/s12519-017-0103-9.

Raimi TH, Odusan O. Association of hypertension with generalized obesity in rural southwestern Nigeria. J Surg Med. 2020;4(3):177-81. doi: 10.28982/josam.593387

WooBaidal JA, Locks LM, Cheng ER, et al. Risk factors for childhood obesity in the first 1000 days: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2016;50:761-79. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2015.11.012.

Bell KA, Wagner CL, Feldman HA, Shypailo RJ, Belfort MB. Associations of infant feeding with trajectories of body composition and growth. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106(2):491-8. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.151126.

Rzehak P, Oddy WH, Mearin ML, Grote V, Mori TA, Szajewska H, et al. Infant feeding and growth trajectory patterns in childhood and body composition in young adulthood. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106:568 80. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.140962.

Park SJ, Lee HJ. Exclusive breastfeeding and partial breastfeeding reduce the risk of overweight in childhood: A nationwide longitudinal study in Korea. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice. 2018;12(2):222-8. doi: 10.1016/j.orcp.2018.01.001.

Appleton J, Russell CG, Laws R, Fowler C, Campbell K, Denney-Wilson E. Infant formula feeding practices associated with rapid weight gain: A systematic review. Matern Child Nutr. 2018;14(3). doi: 10.1111/mcn.12602

Martin RM, Patel R, Kramer MS, Vilchuck K, Bogdanovich N, Sergeichick N, et al. Effects of promoting increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding on adiposity and insulin-like growth factor-I at age 11.5 years: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2013 March 13;309(10):1005–13. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.167.

Hopkins D, Steer CD, Northstone K, Emmett PM. Effects on childhood body habitus of feeding large volumes of cow or formula milk compared with breastfeeding in the latter part of infancy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102:1096–103. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.100529.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). NCHS Data Brief. October 2017; No. 288:4

Yılmazbaş P, Gökçay G. Childhood Obesity and Prevention. J Child. 2018;18(3):103-12. doi:10.5222/j. child.2018.59389.

Turkey National Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) Report. 2018;143-6.

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), Breastfeeding: A Mother’s Gift, for Every Child, 2018;1-13.

Hanson LÅ. Session 1: Feeding and infant development breast-feeding and immune function. Proc Nutr Soc. 2007;66(3):384–96. doi: 10.1017/S0029665107005654.

Leung AKC, Sauve RS. Breast is best for babies. J Natl Med Assoc. 2005;97(7):1010–19. PMID: 16080672

Tharner A, Luijk MP, Raat H, Ijzendoorn MH, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, Henriette AM, et al. Breastfeeding and its relation to maternal sensitivity and infant attachment. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2012;33(5):396–404. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e318257fac3.

Casazza K, Pate R, Allison DB. Myths, presumptions, and facts about obesity. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(23):2236–7. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1303009.

Martin RM, Kramer MS, Oken E, Rifas-Shiman SH, Thompson, Yang S, et al. Effects of promoting longer-term and exclusive breastfeeding on adolescent adiposity, blood pressure, and longitudinal growth trajectories: evidence from the PROBIT cluster-randomized trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2017;171(7). doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.0698.

Zheng J-S, Liu H, Li J, Chen Y, Wei C, Shen G, et al. Exclusive breastfeeding is inversely associated with risk of childhood overweight in a large chinese cohort. The Journal of nutrition. 2014;144(9):1454–9. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.193664

Estévez-González M, del Pino AS, Henríquez-Sánchez P, Peña-Quintana L, Saavedra-Santana P.Breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life, adiposity rebound and overweight/obesity at 8 years of age. International Journal of Obesity. 2016;40(1):10–13. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2015.228

Van der Willik EM, Vrijkotte TG, Altenburg TM, Gademan MG, Kist-van Holthe J. Exclusively breastfed overweight infants are at the same risk of childhood overweight as formula fed overweight infants. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2015;100(10):932–7. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2015-308386

Kramer MS, Matush L, Vanilovich I, Platt RW, Bogdanovich N, Sevkovskaya Z, et al. Effects of prolonged and exclusive breastfeeding on child height, weight, adiposity, and blood pressure at age 6.5 y: evidence from a large randomized trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007;86(6):1717–21. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/86.5.1717

O’Tierney PF, Barker DJ, Osmond C, Kajantie E, Eriksson JG. Duration of breast-feeding and adiposity in adult life. The Journal of Nutrition. 2009;139(2):422S–5S. doi: 10.3945/jn.108.097089

Tian Q, Gao X, Sha T, Chen,C, Li,L, He Q, et al. Effect of Feeding Patterns on Growth and Nutritional Status of Children Aged 0-24 Months: A Chinese Cohort Study. PLoS One. 2019;14(11). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224968

Carling SJ, Demment MM, Kjolhede CL, Olson CM. Breastfeeding Duration and Weight Gain Trajectory in Infancy. Pediatrics, January 2015;Vol 135, no1, p 111-119. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1392

Pluymen LM, Wijga AH, Gehring U, Koppelman GH, Smit HA, Rossem L, et al. Early introduction of complementary foods and childhood overweight in breastfed and formula-fed infants in the Netherlands: the PIAMA birth cohort study. European Journal of Nutrition. 2018;57:1985–93. PMID: 29470690

Savino F, Fissore MF, Liguori SA, Oggero R. Can hormones contained in mothers’ milk account for the beneficial effect of breastfeeding on obesity in children? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;71:757–65. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03585.x

Wallby T, Lagerberg D, Magnusson M. Relationship Between Breastfeeding and Early Childhood Obesity: Results of a Prospective Longitudinal Study from Birth to 4 Years. Breastfeed Med. Jan/Feb 2017;12:48-53. doi: 10.1089/bfm.2016.0124

Ma J, Qiao Y, Zhao P, Li W. Breastfeeding and childhood obesity: A 12-country study. Matern Child Nutr 2020 Jul;16(3):1-9. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12984.

Malekzadeh JM, Synaii S, Koor BE, Falsafian G, Nakhaie MR. Growth Indices of Exclusively Breastfed Until 6 Months Age and Formula-Fed Infants in Southwest of Iran. Int J Prev Med. 2019;10:207. doi: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_36_18

Kondolot M, Poyrazoğlu S, Horoz D, Borlu A, Altunay C, Balcı E, et al. Risk factors for overweight and obesity in children aged 2-6 years. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2017;30(5):499505. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2016-0358.

Li Ruoweli, Magadia, J, Fein SB. Risk of Bottle-feeding for Rapid Weight Gain During the First Year of Life. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(5):431. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.1665

Downloads

Published

2020-11-01

Issue

Section

Research Article

How to Cite

1.
Ünsür E, Akıcı N, Kızmaz D. Childhood obesity: Is it related to feeding type of the infant?. J Surg Med [Internet]. 2020 Nov. 1 [cited 2023 Jun. 4];4(11):943-6. Available from: https://jsurgmed.com/article/view/810439