Retrospective analysis of the relationship between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and glycemic regulation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus followed up at an internal medicine outpatient clinic
Inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetes
Keywords:neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, platelet lymphocyte ratio, type 2 diabetes mellitus
Background/Aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common chronic disease with an increasing incidence worldwide and its effects are being seen in many countries. Insulin resistance is the main factor in the pathophysiology. T2DM leads to an increase in mortality and morbidity due to macrovascular and microvascular complications. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are effective parameters in monitoring the inflammatory response. The primary aim of this study was to investigate glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes by focusing on their correlation with inflammatory markers, such as NLR and PLR, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and fasting blood glucose levels.
Methods: The present study was carried out in 2022 within the purview of the Internal Medicine Clinic at Balikesir İvrindi State Hospital. Data from the initial annual consultations of patients with T2DM, either newly diagnosed or previously diagnosed and visiting for follow-up, were utilized. Our study excluded patients under the age of 18 and those diagnosed with cirrhosis, heart failure, type 1 diabetes mellitus, malignancy, epilepsy, acute infection, pregnancy, or chronic inflammatory disease. We further excluded those on medications including steroids, antivirals, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antithyroids, and chemotherapeutic drugs that impact the leukocyte count. Based on their HbA1c levels, patients were systematically categorized into two distinct cohorts: those with controlled blood sugar (HbA1c ≤7%) and those with uncontrolled blood sugar (HbA1c >7%). In the ambit of this study, we incorporated data from 205 patients. We employed a cross-sectional study that retrospectively examined the correlation between NLR, PLR, and glycemic regulation in T2DM patients. SPSS 22.0 software was used to perform statistical calculations.
Results: It was observed that patients with poor glycemic control had longer disease durations and this disparity bore statistical significance (P=0.005). Patients exhibiting poor glycemic control demonstrated elevated levels of CRP (C-reactive protein), a difference that reached statistical significance (P=0.003). The group exhibiting poor glycemic control demonstrated a notable elevation in NLR, indicating statistical significance (P=0.001). Although it was not statistically significant, PLR was found to be higher in patients with uncontrolled T2DM (P=0.441).
Conclusion: This research investigates the correlation between HbA1c levels and inflammatory markers, specifically NLR and TLR, in T2DM patients who exhibit poor control of glycemia. Our findings highlight the potential of these markers as indicators of glycemic control, thus emphasizing the need for integrated strategies for managing inflammation and improving glycemic control in T2DM patients. The novelty of this area of research contributes to the scarcity of available literature, underlining the importance and timeliness of this study. Based on our findings, we suggest an increased focus on regular monitoring of inflammatory markers, for instance NLR and PLR, to assess the glycemic control in T2DM patients. The significant correlation of these markers with HbA1c levels implies that they could potentially serve as useful tools in personalizing diabetes management strategies, leading to improved patient outcomes. Not only does our research contribute to filling this knowledge gap, but it also underscores the potential for utilizing inflammatory markers in tracking disease progression and optimizing treatment efficacy in T2DM.
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