Preoperative advanced cardiology evaluation in adult non-cardiac surgery: A retrospective cohort study

Preoperative cardiac evaluation in non-cardiac surgery



cardiac patient, perioperative risk, preoperative evaluation, cardiology consultation


Background/Aim: Advanced cardiology evaluation (ACE) is the most frequently requested consultation during preoperative medical evaluations (PMEs) performed in anesthesia outpatient clinics. However, the efficacy and results of this ACE request are unclear. We aimed to show the frequency of ACE requested during PME of patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery (NCS) and its effect on diagnosis, treatment process, and surgical time planning.

Methods: This is a single-center, retrospective cohort study of 300 patients aged 18 years and older who need ACE. Medical charts were reviewed for patient characteristics and diagnosis, planned surgery type, surgical intervention risk, revised cardiac risk index (RCRI), other consultation records, cardiology consultation indication, risk group determined by the cardiologist, metabolic equivalent (METs), and anticoagulant use were recorded.

Results: We analyzed the data of 300 patients for whom ACE was requested from 9825 patients who underwent PME. The mean age was 66 (12) years, and the most common age range was 60–79 years (62.7%). The proportion of patients with METs ≤4 was 11% (n=33). The most common additional consultation was chest disease (10%), and the most common co-morbidity was hypertension (61.6%). The most common reason for consultation was a history of ischemic heart disease (50%). According to the revised cardiac risk index, most patients were in class 2, while according to the cardiology consultation outcome grade, most patients were in the intermediate risk group. It was observed that the cardiology consultation process was mostly completed on the same day (255 patients, 85%), and the use of anticoagulant drugs was mostly left to the individual evaluation of the surgeon (143 patients, 47.7%).

Conclusion: PME should be given due care to prevent perioperative cardiac complications in patients undergoing NCS. More careful patient assessments are needed during ACEs. This would allow for more accurate risk stratifications and, if necessary, the ordering of additional testing.


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Research Article

How to Cite

Şimşek F, Erten E. Preoperative advanced cardiology evaluation in adult non-cardiac surgery: A retrospective cohort study: Preoperative cardiac evaluation in non-cardiac surgery. J Surg Med [Internet]. 2023 Feb. 20 [cited 2023 Apr. 1];7(2):165-9. Available from: