The anxiety level of healthcare professionals and hospital support staff during the COVID-19 pandemic

The anxiety level of healthcare workers



healthcare professionals, anxiety, hospital support staff, pandemic


Background/Aim: The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed a significant psychological burden on healthcare professionals. This study aims to identify the anxiety levels of healthcare professionals and non-healthcare personnel during the pandemic.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on healthcare professionals during the pandemic, and we attempted to reach all personnel without setting a specific sample size. Participants completed a survey that included demographic information and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). We compared anxiety scores and working conditions between healthcare and non-healthcare personnel during the pandemic.

Results: Our study included 204 personnel, with 45.1% being healthcare professionals and 54.9% non-healthcare professionals. The mean state anxiety score for all participants was 44.7 (10.3). Female professionals, those working in intensive care, and personnel who believed they lacked sufficient protection training had significantly higher mean anxiety scores (P=0.001, P=0.006, P<0.001, respectively). Participants with mild or no problems initiating and maintaining sleep and waking up early had lower mean anxiety scores (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between healthcare professionals and non-healthcare personnel in mean scores (P=0.59).

Conclusion: Our study found that all personnel experienced medium-level anxiety during the pandemic, indicating an increased risk for hospital staff. The fact that non-healthcare personnel had similar anxiety scores to healthcare professionals highlights the need for psychosocial interventions to support all hospital staff, regardless of their role in patient care.


Download data is not yet available.


Öztaş D. Yeni Corona Pandemisi (Covid-19) İle Mücadelede Geçmişten Ders Çikartmak. Ankara Med J. 2020;2:468-81. doi: 10.5505/amj.2020.46547. DOI:

Wu D, Wu T, Liu Q, Yang Z. The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak: what we know. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2020. DOI:

WHO. Coronavirus. 2020. Available date: 15.06.2020

Taylor MR, Agho KE, Stevens GJ, Raphael B. Factors influencing psychological distress during a disease epidemic: data from Australia's first outbreak of equine influenza. BMC public health. 2008;8(1):347. DOI:

Zhang W-r, Wang K, Yin L, Zhao W-f, Xue Q, Peng M, et al. Mental health and psychosocial problems of medical health workers during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 2020;89(4):242-50. DOI:

Lau JT, Yang X, Pang E, Tsui H, Wong E, Wing YK. SARS-related perceptions in Hong Kong. Emerging infectious diseases. 2005;11(3):417. DOI:

Bai Y, Lin C-C, Lin C-Y, Chen J-Y, Chue C-M, Chou P. Survey of stress reactions among health care workers involved with the SARS outbreak. Psychiatric Services. 2004;55(9):1055-7. DOI:

Liu S, Yang L, Zhang C, Xiang Y-T, Liu Z, Hu S, et al. Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(4):e17-e8. DOI:

Spielberger C, Gorsuch R, Lushene R. Manual for State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: Consulting Psychologist. 1970.

Alimoglu E, Alimoglu MK, Kabaalioglu A, Ceken K, Apaydin A, Lüleci E. Mamografi çekimine bagli agri ve kaygi. Tani Girisim Radyol. 2004:213-7.

Öner N, LeCompte A. Durumluluk-süreklilik kaygı envanteri elkitabı. İstanbul: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınları. 1985.

Elbay RY, Kurtulmuş A, Arpacıoğlu S, Karadere E. Depression, Anxiety, Stress Levels of Physicians and Associated Factors In Covid-19 Pandemics. Psychiatry Research. 2020:113130. DOI:

Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, Cai Z, Hu J, Wei N, et al. Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA network open. 2020;3(3):e203976-e. DOI:

Xiao H, Zhang Y, Kong D, Li S, Yang N. The effects of social support on sleep quality of medical staff treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January and February 2020 in China. Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. 2020;26:e923549-1. DOI:

Kang L, Li Y, Hu S, Chen M, Yang C, Yang BX, et al. The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(3):e14. DOI:

Liu C-Y, Yang Y-z, Zhang X-M, Xu X, Dou Q-L, Zhang W-W, et al. The prevalence and influencing factors in anxiety in medical workers fighting COVID-19 in China: a cross-sectional survey. Epidemiology & Infection. 2020:1-17. DOI:

Lu W, Wang H, Lin Y, Li L. Psychological status of medical workforce during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study. Psychiatry research. 2020:112936. DOI:

Zhu Z, Xu S, Wang H, Liu Z, Wu J, Li G, et al. COVID-19 in Wuhan: Immediate Psychological Impact on 5062 Health Workers. MedRxiv. 2020. DOI:

Van Reeth O, Weibel L, Spiegel K, Leproult R, Dugovic C, Maccari S. Interactions between stress and sleep: from basic research to clinical situations. Sleep medicine reviews. 2000;4(2):201-20. DOI:

Alvaro PK, Roberts RM, Harris JK. A systematic review assessing bidirectionality between sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression. Sleep. 2013;36(7):1059-68. DOI:

Johnson EO, Roth T, Breslau N. The association of insomnia with anxiety disorders and depression: exploration of the direction of risk. Journal of psychiatric research. 2006;40(8):700-8. DOI:

Zhang C, Yang L, Liu S, Ma S, Wang Y, Cai Z, et al. Survey of Insomnia and Related Social Psychological Factors Among Medical Staff Involved in the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease Outbreak. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2020;11(306). doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00306. DOI:






Research Article

How to Cite

Salcan S, Ezmeci T. The anxiety level of healthcare professionals and hospital support staff during the COVID-19 pandemic : The anxiety level of healthcare workers. J Surg Med [Internet]. 2023 Jul. 13 [cited 2024 May 20];7(7):409-12. Available from: