The effects of sound-and-light toy as a distraction method on pain and physiological parameters in infants regarding circumcision procedure

The effect of a distraction method in circumcision procedure



Infant, Circumcision, Pain, Toy


Background/Aim: Circumcision is a common surgical procedure and a cause of pain and stress for infants. Nurses are in a key role for providing pain relief through implementation of non-pharmacological practices for pain management. This study aimed to assess the impact of distraction using a sound- and light-producing toy on pain and physiological parameters in infants regarding circumcision procedure.

Methods: This randomized controlled study was conducted with infants between six months and two years of age who presented to a private circumcision clinic. The sample consisted of 60 infants randomly allocated into intervention (n = 30) and control (n = 30) groups. During the procedure, the mothers of the infants in the intervention distracted the infants with the toy for 15 min. Infants in the control group were accompanied by their mothers during the procedure and did not receive any additional intervention other than the standard care. Data were collected using a questionnaire and the face, legs, activity, cry, consolability (FLACC) pain scale. Data were assessed using descriptive statistical analyses and parametric tests.

Results: Infants in the intervention and control groups were similar in terms of current and gestational ages, lengths, weights, and maternal and paternal ages and showed no differences in terms of physiological parameters before and after the procedure (P > 0.05). Post-operative pain scores were lower in infants exposed to the toy with light- and sound than that in the infants in the control group; however, no significant difference between groups was found (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: Considering the effect of sound- and light-producing toys on causing a reduction in pain severity, it may be recommended to use distracting practices by nurses to reduce/relieve pain associated with circumcision.


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Şener Taplak A, Sezer Efe Y, Ceyhan L. The effects of sound-and-light toy as a distraction method on pain and physiological parameters in infants regarding circumcision procedure: The effect of a distraction method in circumcision procedure. J Surg Med [Internet]. 2022 Oct. 22 [cited 2024 May 25];6(10):858-62. Available from: