The effects of moderate-intensity step-aerobics, spinning, and educational game exercise programs on plasma dopamine and oxytocin levels in women in the menopausal transition period

Effects of exercise on hormone levels in menopausal transition period

Authors

Keywords:

Menopausal transition period, Woman, Exercise, Dopamine, Oxytocin

Abstract

Background/Aim: Menopausal transition (MT) is defined as the transition from reproductive to post-reproductive life. Oxytocin has beneficial effects on health problems, such as sexual activity disorder, vaginal atrophy, cardiovascular system diseases and acceleration in bone mass loss, which may develop due to changes in reproductive hormone levels during the MT period. During exercise, which can be used as adjuvant therapy for most of these health problems, a temporary increase in catecholamine levels is required for response to exercise-induced stress. However, the effects of exercise programs applied during the MT period on plasma dopamine (pDA) and plasma oxytocin (pOT) levels are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three different types of exercise on plasma dopamine (pDA) and plasma oxytocin (pOT) levels in sedentary women in the MT period.

Methods: Twenty-six sedentary healthy participants in the MT period whose fitness levels in the standard maximal exercise treadmill test were at a level that would complement the exercise programs in our study, were included in the study. Participants with the following conditions were excluded from the study: physical disability that would not allow exercise, systemic disease, unilateral oophorectomy, or history of smoking. In addition, participants who could not complete any of the exercise programs for any reason were excluded from the study. Three different exercise programs at moderate intensity [maximum heart rate (HR) = 50%-60%] of 60 minutes duration were performed by the participants at one-week intervals: (i) step-aerobics (SA), (ii) spinning (SP) and (iii) station work in the form of recreational educational games (EG). pOT and pDA levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method in venous blood samples taken from participants before the exercise and during the last five minutes of the exercise. pOT and pDA levels measured before the exercise and in the last five minutes of the exercise were compared.

Results: The median age was 45 (41-45) and the body mass index (BMI) was 29 (27-34). There was a significant increase in mean pDA levels during exercise compared to pre-exercise in all three activities of moderate-intensity, SA, SP, and EG (P = 0.008, P = 0.001 and P = 0.030, respectively). The mean pOT level increased significantly during moderate-intensity SA and EG (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively). When the relationships between pDA and pOT levels and the variables of age, BMI, pulse rate, and maximum HR during all three exercises were evaluated, there was a significant positive correlation between pOT levels and maximum HR only during EG (r = 0.439, P = 0.028).

Conclusions: This study showed that SA and EG applied in women in the MT period increased both pDA and pOT levels, while SP only increased the pDA level significantly. Therefore, SA and EG exercises can contribute positively to the quality of life of women with health problems due to low pOT levels during the MT period.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Santoro N, Roeca C, Peters BA, Neal-Perry G. The Menopause Transition: Signs, Symptoms, and Management Options. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Jan 1;106(1):1-15. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgaa764. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa764

Gutierrez C, Waetjen LE, Matthews K. The menopause transition and women's health at midlife: a progress report from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Menopause. 2019 Oct;26(10):1213-27. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001424. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001424

Greendale GA, Han W, Finkelstein JS, Burnett-Bowie SM, Huang M, Martin D, et al. Changes in Regional Fat Distribution and Anthropometric Measures Across the Menopause Transition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2021 Aug 18;106(9):2520-34. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgab389. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab389

Luan X, Tian X, Zhang H, Huang R, Li N, Chen P, et al. Exercise as a prescription for patients with various diseases. J Sport Health Sci. 2019 Sep;8(5):422-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jshs.2019.04.002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2019.04.002

Kruk J, Kotarska K, Aboul-Enein BH. Physical exercise and catecholamines response: benefits and health risk: possible mechanisms. Free Radic Res. 2020 Mar;54(2-3):105-25. doi: 10.1080/10715762.2020.1726343. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10715762.2020.1726343

Abrantes Dias AS, Amaral Pinto JC, Magalhães M, Mendes VM, Manadas B. Analytical methods to monitor dopamine metabolism in plasma: Moving forward with improved diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2020 Aug 5;187:113323. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113323. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113323

Van Loon GR. Plasma dopamine: regulation and significance. Fed Proc. 1983 Oct;42(13):3012-8.

Bucolo C, Leggio GM, Drago F, Salomone S. Dopamine outside the brain: The eye, cardiovascular system and endocrine pancreas. Pharmacol Ther. 2019 Nov;203:107392. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2019.07.003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2019.07.003

Liu N, Yang H, Han L, Ma M. Oxytocin in Women's Health and Disease. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 Feb 15;13:786271. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.786271. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.786271

Wang P, Wang SC, Yang H, Lv C, Jia S, Liu X, et al. Therapeutic Potential of Oxytocin in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: Mechanisms and Signaling Pathways. Front Neurosci. 2019 May 21;13:454. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00454. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00454

Breuil V, Trojani MC, Ez-Zoubir A. Oxytocin and Bone: Review and Perspectives. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Aug 9;22(16):8551. doi: 10.3390/ijms22168551. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168551

Zohrabi I, Abedi P, Ansari S, Maraghi E, Shakiba Maram N, Houshmand G. The effect of oxytocin vaginal gel on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Womens Health. 2020 May 19;20(1):108. doi: 10.1186/s12905-020-00935-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-020-00935-5

Harlow SD, Gass M, Hall JE, Lobo R, Maki P, Rebar RW, et al. STRAW 10 Collaborative Group. Executive summary of the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop + 10: addressing the unfinished agenda of staging reproductive aging. Menopause. 2012 Apr;19(4):387-95. doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e31824d8f40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/gme.0b013e31824d8f40

Bull FC, Al-Ansari SS, Biddle S, Borodulin K, Buman MP, Cardon G, et al. World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Br J Sports Med. 2020 Dec;54(24):1451-62. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2020-102955. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-102955

Thomas S, Reading J, Shephard RJ. Revision of the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q). Can J Sport Sci. 1992 Dec;17(4):338-45.

American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription 2014. 9th ed. New York (NY): Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2013. p. 112–141. [Online]. Available: https://tr.book4you.org/book/2360256/610467

Ignaszewski M, Lau B, Wong S, Isserow S. The science of exercise prescription: Martti Karvonen and his contributions. British Columbia Medical Journal. 2017;59(1):38-41.

Wochyński Z, Sobiech K. Impact of special aviation gymnastics instruments training on selected hormones in cadets' blood serum and plasma. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2017 Jun 19;30(4):655-64. doi: 10.13075/ijomeh.1896.00904. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13075/ijomeh.1896.00904

Simeunovic D, Seferovic PM, Ristic AD, Nikolic D, Risimic D, Seferovic J, et al. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Markers and Catecholamine Changes in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy Before and After Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing. Hellenic J Cardiol. 2015 Sep-Oct;56(5):394-401.

Kinoshita A, Koga M, Matsusaki M, Ikeda M, Tanaka H, Shindo M, et al. Changes of dopamine and atrial natriuretic factor by mild exercise for hypertensives. Clin Exp Hypertens A. 1991;13(6-7):1275-90. doi: 10.3109/10641969109042127. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/10641969109042127

Carneiro LS, Mota MP, Vieira-Coelho MA, Alves RC, Fonseca AM, Vasconcelos-Raposo J. Monoamines and cortisol as potential mediators of the relationship between exercise and depressive symptoms. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2017 Mar;267(2):117-21. doi: 10.1007/s00406-016-0719-0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00406-016-0719-0

Hartling OJ, Kelbaek H, Gjørup T, Nielsen MD, Trap-Jensen J. Plasma concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine during forearm dynamic exercise. Clin Physiol. 1989 Aug;9(4):399-404. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-097x.1989.tb00993.x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-097X.1989.tb00993.x

Altemus M, Roca C, Galliven E, Romanos C, Deuster P. Increased vasopressin and adrenocorticotropin responses to stress in the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jun;86(6):2525-30. doi: 10.1210/jcem.86.6.7596. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1210/jcem.86.6.7596

Godwin EM, Uglialoro AD, Ali A, Yearwood L, Banerji MA,Kral JG. Cardio- and neurometabolic effects of lower-body pressuresupported exercise in obese non-diabetic women: resetting auto-nomic imbalance? bioRxiv. 2017. Available: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/202986v1 [accessed Feb 09 2022]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1101/202986

Hew-Butler T, Noakes TD, Soldin SJ, Verbalis JG. Acute changes in endocrine and fluid balance markers during high-intensity, steady-state, and prolonged endurance running: unexpected increases in oxytocin and brain natriuretic peptide during exercise. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008 Dec;159(6):729-37. doi: 10.1530/EJE-08-0064. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-08-0064

Lawson EA, Ackerman KE, Estella NM, Guereca G, Pierce L, Sluss PM, et al. Nocturnal oxytocin secretion is lower in amenorrheic athletes than nonathletes and associated with bone microarchitecture and finite element analysis parameters. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 Feb 20;168(3):457-64. doi: 10.1530/EJE-12-0869. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-12-0869

MacInnis MJ, Gibala MJ. Physiological adaptations to interval training and the role of exercise intensity. J Physiol. 2017 May 1;595(9):2915-30. doi: 10.1113/JP273196. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1113/JP273196

Boetger CL, Ward DS. Effect of dopamine on transient ventilatory response to exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1986 Dec;61(6):2102-7. doi: 10.1152/jappl.1986.61.6.2102. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1986.61.6.2102

Janssen C, Beloka S, Kayembe P, Deboeck G, Adamopoulos D, Naeije R, et al. Decreased ventilatory response to exercise by dopamine-induced inhibition of peripheral chemosensitivity. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2009 Sep 30;168(3):250-3. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2009.07.010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2009.07.010

Watson P, Hasegawa H, Roelands B, Piacentini MF, Looverie R, Meeusen R. Acute dopamine/noradrenaline reuptake inhibition enhances human exercise performance in warm, but not temperate conditions. J Physiol. 2005 Jun 15;565(Pt 3):873-83. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2004.079202. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2004.079202

Tedjasaputra V, Bryan TL, van Diepen S, Moore LE, Bouwsema MM, Welsh RC, et al. Dopamine receptor blockade improves pulmonary gas exchange but decreases exercise performance in healthy humans. J Physiol. 2015 Jul 15;593(14):3147-57. doi: 10.1113/JP270238. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1113/JP270238

Lawson EA, Ackerman KE, Slattery M, Marengi DA, Clarke H, Misra M. Oxytocin secretion is related to measures of energy homeostasis in young amenorrheic athletes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 May;99(5):881-5. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-4136. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2013-4136

Onaka T, Takayanagi Y, Yoshida M. Roles of oxytocin neurones in the control of stress, energy metabolism, and social behaviour. J Neuroendocrinol. 2012 Apr;24(4):587-98. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2012.02300.x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2826.2012.02300.x

Takayanagi Y, Onaka T. Roles of Oxytocin in Stress Responses, Allostasis and Resilience. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Dec 23;23(1):150. doi: 10.3390/ijms23010150. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23010150

Petersson M. Cardiovascular effects of oxytocin. Prog Brain Res. 2002;139:281-8. doi: 10.1016/s0079-6123(02)39024-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123(02)39024-1

Downloads

Published

2022-09-14

Issue

Section

Research Article

How to Cite

1.
Yavuz A, Sari İsmail, Habipoğlu S, Ayan D. The effects of moderate-intensity step-aerobics, spinning, and educational game exercise programs on plasma dopamine and oxytocin levels in women in the menopausal transition period: Effects of exercise on hormone levels in menopausal transition period. J Surg Med [Internet]. 2022 Sep. 14 [cited 2023 Feb. 6];6(9):803-8. Available from: https://jsurgmed.com/article/view/7435