Evaluation of anxiety sensitivity, depression, and personality characteristics in chronic subjective dizziness patients



Dizziness, Anxiety sensitivity, Personality traits, Depression


Aim: Dizziness and vertigo are among the most common symptoms in otolaryngology, neurology and psychiatry clinics. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate anxiety sensitivity, depression and personality traits in patients who were followed up with chronic subjective dizziness.

Methods: Fifty-one patients with dizziness complaints for at least 3 months and no history of peripheral vestibular disease were enrolled to the patient group, and 51 healthy controls were enrolled to the control group of this case-control study. Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) scale forms were applied to the patient and control groups by a psychiatrist.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference in ASI-3 between the groups (P=0.119). In the patient group, the BAI values were found higher than the control group (P<0.001). While BDI values between the patient and control groups were similar, there was a trend for higher depression scores in the patients compared with the healthy individuals (P=0.052). 

Conclusion: As a result, the presence of anxiety symptoms and neurotic personality characteristics may worsen dizziness development or disease progression. In the treatment of dizziness patients without neurological and otologic problems, a multidisciplinary approach will provide positive contributions to the course of the disease and to the quality of life of the patients.


Download data is not yet available.


Staab JP, Rohe DE, Eggers SDZ, Shepard NT. Anxious, introverted personality traits in patients with chronic subjective dizziness. J Psychosom Res. 2014;76:80-3.

Honaker JA, Gilbert JM, Staab JP. Chronic subjective dizziness versus conversion disorder: Discussion of clinical findings and rehabilitation. Am J Audiol. 2010;19:3-8.

Post RE, Dickerson LM. Dizziness: A diagnostic approach. Am Fam Physician. 2010;82:361-8.

Indovina I, Riccelli R, Chiarella G, Petrolo C, Augimeri A, Giofrè L, et al. Role of the insula and vestibular system in patients with chronic subjective dizziness: an fMRI study using sound-evoked vestibular stimulation. Front Behav Neurosci. 2015;9:1-12.

Reiss S, Peterson RA, Gursky DM, McNally RJ. Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency and the predictions of fearfulness. Behav Res Ther 1986;24:1-8

Starcevic V, Berle D. Cognitive specificity of anxiety disorders: a review of selected key constructs. Depress Anxiety. 2006;23:51–61.

Cox BJ, Endler NS, Norton GR, Swinson RP. Anxiety sensitivity and nonclinical panic attacks. Behav Res Ther. 1991;29:367-9.

Lahmann C, Henningsen P, Brandt T, Strupp M, Jahn K, Dieterich M, et al. Psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial impairment among patients with vertigo and dizziness. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2015;86:302-8.

Eckhardt-Henn A, Breuer P, Thomalske C, Hoffmann SO, Hopf HC. Anxiety disorders and other psychiatric subgroups in patients complaining of dizziness. J Anxiety Disord. 2003;17:369-88.

Staab JP. The influence of anxiety on ocular motor control and gaze. Curr Opin Neurol. 2014;27:118-24.

Akçay BD, Gül VO, Özer S.Temperament and character traits in patients with anorectal disorder. J Surg Med. 2018;2(1):17-22.

Taylor S, Zvolensky MJ, Cox BJ, Deacon B, Heimberg RG, Ledley DR, et al. Robust dimensions of anxiety sensitivity: Development and initial validation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3. Psychol Assess. 2007;19:176-88.

Mantar A, Yemez B, Alkin T. The validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the anxiety sensitivity index-3. Turk Psikiyatri Derg. 2010;21:225-34.

Francis LJ, Brown LB, Philipchalk R. The development of an abbreviated form of the revised Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQR-A): Its use among students in England, Canada, the U.S.A. and Australia. Pers Individ Dif. 1992;13:443-9.

Eysenck HJ, Eysenck SBG. Manual of the Eysenck personality questionnaire (junior and adult). London: Hodder and Stoughton; 1975.

Eysenck SBG, Eysenck HJ, Barrett P. A revised version of the psychoticism scale. Pers Individ Dif. 1985;6:21–9.

Karanci AN, Dirik G, Yorulmaz O. Reliability and validity studies of Turkish translation of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated. Turk Psikiyatri Derg. 2007;18:254-61.

Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1961;4:561-71.

Hisli N. The validity and reliability of Beck Depression Inventory for University Students. Psikol Derg. 1989;7:3-13.

Beck AT, Epstein N, Brown G, Steer RA. An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1988;56:893-7.

Ulusoy M, Sahin N, Erkmen H. Turkish version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory: psychometric properties. J Cogn Psychother. 1998;12:163-72.

Ruckenstein M, Stabb J. Chronic subjective dizziness. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2009;42:71-7.

Riccelli R, Indovina I, Staab JP, Nigro S, Augimeri A, Lacquaniti F, et al. Neuroticism modulates brain visuo-vestibular and anxiety systems during a virtual rollercoaster task. Hum Brain Mapp. 2017;38:715-26.

Balaban CD, Jacob RG. Background and history of the interface between anxiety and vertigo. J Anxiety Disord. 2001;15:27-51.

Best C, Eckhardt-Henn A, Tschan R, Dieterich M. Psychiatric morbidity and comorbidity in different vestibular vertigo syndromes: Results of a prospective longitudinal study over one year. J Neurol. 2009;256:58-65.

Roh KJ, Kim MK, Kim JH, Son EJ. Role of Emotional Distress in Prolongation of Dizziness : A Cross-Sectional Study. J Audiol Otol. 2018;22:6-12.

Viaud-Delmon I, Venault P, Chapouthier G. Behavioral models for anxiety and multisensory integration in animals and humans. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacology Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35:1391-9.

Ödman M, Maire R. Chronic subjective dizziness. Acta Otolaryngol. 2008;128:1085-8.

Chiarella G, Petrolo C, Ricelli R, Giofre L, Olivadese G, Gioacchini F. Chronic subjective dizziness: Analysis of Underlying Personality Factors. 2016:403-8.






Research Article

How to Cite

Kantekin Y, Karaaslan Özgül, Dağıstan H, Haberal Can İlknur. Evaluation of anxiety sensitivity, depression, and personality characteristics in chronic subjective dizziness patients. J Surg Med [Internet]. 2020 Jan. 2 [cited 2023 Nov. 29];4(1):33-7. Available from: https://jsurgmed.com/article/view/605104