The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with cerebral palsy: A retrospective, single center, observational study
Keywords:Cerebral palsy, Clinical characteristics, Magnetic resonance imaging
Aim: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of movement, muscle tone or posture that is caused by damage that occurs to the immature, developing brain, most often before birth.
A good definition of the disease will help for early diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sociodemographic, clinical and radiologic characteristics of patients who were followed up as CP diagnosis.
Methods: Our study was designed as a retrospective, cross-sectional and descriptive. Forty-six patients with CP were included in the study. The age, sex, type of CP, accompanying clinical findings, presence of mental retardation, and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were recorded in the patient files.
Results: The types of CP were determined as spastic hemiparesis in 12 (26.1%) patients, spastic paraparesis in 9 (19.6%), spastic tetraparesis in 17 (37.0%, most frequently)), ataxic in 3 (6.5%), hypotonic in 1 (2.2%), extrapyramidal in 2 (4.4%) and mixed type in 2 (4.4%). In the MRI findings, arachnoid cyst was observed in 4 (11.4%) patients, basal ganglion intensity in 8 (20.2%), encephalomalacia in 8 (20.2%), frontogliotic area in 30 (80.7%, mostly frequently), cortical atrophy in 6 (17.1%), megacisterna in 5 (14.3%), and centrum semiovale hyperintensity in 8 (20.2%). Findings of hypoxic ischaemic brain injury were determined in 32 (91.4%) patients.
Conclusion: As CP is a group of diseases for which diagnosis may be difficult but early diagnosis can be beneficial, children at high-risk from birth must be closely monitored, the families must be warned, and if necessary early neuro-imaging tests should be requested. In the long-term follow-up process, in respect of both rehabilitation and the follow-up of comorbidities such as epilepsy, the treatment and follow-up of patients must be applied by a multidisciplinary team to be able to reach maximum physical capacity.
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