Health literacy levels and affecting factors among adults in Northeast Anatolia

Health literacy levels of adults

Authors

Keywords:

health literacy, THLS-32, health promotion

Abstract

Background/Aim: Health literacy is individuals’ wishes and capacities to develop their own opinions and make decisions regarding health services, their ability to maintain and promote their health, access health-related information, and interpret those messages and information correctly. Although health literacy began being discussed in the 1980s, its importance has become more apparent in recent years. However, greater research with regional and local data is still needed in this field. The purpose of this study was to determine levels of health literacy among adults in central districts of the Erzurum province, Turkey, and to examine the factors affecting these.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed with 864 individuals from the 15–65 age group living in Erzurum. The questionnaire employed in the research consisted of two parts: a personal information form and the Turkish Health Literacy Scale-32. The questionnaire was applied following receipt of participant consent. SPSS v 24 was used to enter and analyze the data. Descriptive statistics were expressed as percentage, mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum values. The chi-square test, Spearman’s correlation analysis, and regression analysis were applied. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 35.6 (13.0) years, and 55.8% were women. Additionally, 23.6% (n=204) of participants were educated to a primary school level or were uneducated, and 56.0% were not working in income-generating employment. Health literacy levels were inadequate in 24.1% of participants, problematic in 31.6%, adequate in 27.7%, and perfect in 16.6%. Health literacy levels varied significantly depending on participants’ age groups (P<0.001), sex (P=0.007), education levels (P<0.001), possession of health insurance (P<0.001), presence of chronic disease in themselves or first-degree relatives (P=0.002 and P<0.001, respectively), and history of hospitalization exceeding 15 days (P=0.026).

Conclusion: The incidence of inadequate/problematic health literacy was 55.7%. Although it is not an expected rate for health literacy, this rate shows that only half of the population has a sufficient level and a significant inadequacy in health literacy. This shows that insufficient health literacy is widespread in Erzurum and that interventions aimed at health literacy are required in the province as in the country as a whole. Understanding the factors affecting health literacy is important in terms of improving health, health services planning, and intervention in these spheres.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Pelikan JM, Röthlin F, Ganahl K. Comparative report on health literacy in eight EU member states. The European Health Literacy Survey. HLS-EU. 2012.

Sørensen K, Van den Broucke S, Fullam J, Doyle G, Pelikan J, Slonska Z, et al. Health literacy and public health: a systematic review and integration of definitions and models. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):80. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-80

Selden C, Zorn M, Ratzan S, Parker R. Current bibliographies in medicine: health literacy. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine. 2000.

Kanj M, Mitic W, editors. Consultants to the Eastern Mediterranean Region. World Health Organization Health Literacy and Health Promotion Definitions, Concepts and Examples in the Eastern Mediterranean Region Individual Empowerment Conference Working Document. 2009.

Nutbeam D. The evolving concept of health literacy. Social Science & Medicine. 2008;67(12):2072-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.09.050

Nutbeam D. Health literacy as a public health goal: a challenge for contemporary health education and communication strategies into the 21st century. Health Promotion Int. 2000;15(3):259-67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/15.3.259

Berkman ND, Sheridan SL, Donahue KE, Halpern DJ, Crotty K. Low health literacy and health outcomes: an updated systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2011;155(2):97-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-155-2-201107190-00005

McNaughton CD, Cawthon C, Kripalani S, Liu D, Storrow AB, Roumie CL. Health literacy and mortality: a cohort study of patients hospitalized for acute heart failure. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2015;4(5):e001799. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.115.001799

Kutner M, Greenburg E, Jin Y, Paulsen C. The Health Literacy of America's Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. NCES 2006-483. National Center for Education Statistics. 2006.

Eichler K, Wieser S, Brügger U. The costs of limited health literacy: a systematic review. International Journal of Public Health. 2009;54(5):313. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-009-0058-2

Türkiye Sağlık Okuryazarlığı Düzeyi ve İlişkili Faktörleri Araştırması. Available from: https://sggm.saglik.gov.tr/TR,56524/turkiye-saglik-okuryazarligi-duzeyi-ve-iliskili-faktorleri-arastirmasi.html. Accessed date: 24 August 2019

Okyay P, Abacigil F. Sağlık Okuryazarlığının Ölçülmesi. Sağlık Okuryazarlığı. 1. Baskı. Ankara: Türkiye Klinikleri; 2019:10-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.54247/SOYD.2020.2

Eyüboğlu E, Schulz PJ. Validation of Turkish health literacy measures. Health Promotion Int. 2015;31(2):355-62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dau111

Ozdemir H, Alper Z, Uncu Y, Bilgel N. Health literacy among adults: a study from Turkey. Health Education Research. 2010;25(3):464-77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyp068

Abacigil F, Harlak H, Okyay P, Evci Kiraz D, Gursoy Turan S, Saruhan G, et al. Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire. Health Promotion Int. 2018:34(4),658–67.

Deniz S. Malatya Ili Akçadağ Ilçesinde Sağlık Okuryazarlığı Düzeyinin Değerlendirilmesi. Fırat Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2018, Elazığ (Danışman: Doç. Dr. Ayşe Ferdane Oğuzöncül).

Özdemir Y. Aile Sağlığı Merkezlerine Başvuran Hastaların Sağlık Okuryazarlık Düzeylerinin Belirlenmesi: Kahramanmaraş İli Örneği. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, 2018, Ankara (Danışman: Prof. Dr. İsmet Şahin).

Gözlü K. Sağlık Okuryazarlığı ve Hekim-Hasta İletişiminin Kalitesi Arasındaki İlişkinin İncelenmesi: Aile Sağlığı Merkezleri Örneği. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Doktora Tezi, 2018, Ankara (Danışman: Prof. Dr. Sıdıka Kaya).

Berberoğlu U, Öztürk O, İnci MB, Ekerbiçer HÇ. Bir Aile Sağlığı Merkezine Kayıtlı 18-65 Yaş Grubu Bireylerdeki Sağlık Okuryazarlığı Durumunun Değerlendirilmesi. Sakarya Tıp Dergisi. 2018;8(3):575-81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31832/smj.453846

Toçi E, Burazeri G, Kamberi H, Jerliu N, Sørensen K, Brand H. Socio-economic correlates of functional health literacy among patients of primary health care in Kosovo. Public Health. 2014;128(9):842-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2014.06.009

Jovic-Vranes A, Bjegovic-Mikanovic V, Marinkovic J, Kocev N. Health literacy in a population of primary health-care patients in Belgrade, Serbia. Int J Public Health. 2011;56(2):201-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-010-0181-0

Durusu-Tanrıöver M, Yıldırım HH, Demiray Ready FN, Çakır B, Akalın HE. Türkiye Sağlık Okuryazarlığı Araştırması. 1. Baskı, Ankara, Sağlık-Sen Yayınları. 2014:64-5.

Paasche‐Orlow MK, Parker RM, Gazmararian JA, Nielsen-Bohlman LT, Rudd RR. The prevalence of limited health literacy. J Gen Intern Med. 2005;20:174-84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.40245.x

Abacigil F, Harlak H, Okyay P, Kiraz DE, Gursoy Turan S, Saruhan G, et al. Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire. Health Promotion Int. 2018;34:658–667. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/day020

Beauchamp A, Buchbinder R, Dodson S, Batterham RW, Elsworth GR, McPhee C. Distribution of health literacy strengths and weaknesses across socio-demographic groups: a cross-sectional survey using the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ). BMC Public Health 2015;15:678. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2056-z

Van Der Heide I, Wang J, Droomers M, et al. The Relationship Between Health, Education, and Health Literacy: Results From the Dutch Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. J Health Commun 2013;18(sup1):172–84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2013.825668

Şen Uğur V. Manisa Şehzadeler Eğitim Araştırma Toplum Sağlığı Merkezi Bölgesinde Erişkinlerde Sağlık Okuryazarlığı Düzeyinin Belirlenmesi. Celal Bayar Üniversitesi, Tıpta Uzmanlık Tezi, 2016, Manisa (Danışman: Prof Dr. Pınar Erbay Dündar).

Jordan S, Hoebel J. Health literacy of adults in Germany: Findings from the German Health Update (GEDA) study. Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz. 2015;58(9):942-50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00103-015-2200-z

Wolf MS, Gazmararian JA, Baker DW. Health literacy and functional health status among older adults. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(17):1946-52. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.165.17.1946

Andrus MR, Roth MT. Health literacy: a review. Pharmacotherapy. 2002;22(3):282-302. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1592/phco.22.5.282.33191

Ngoh LN. Health literacy: a barrier to pharmacist–patient communication and medication adherence. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2009;49(5):132-49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1331/JAPhA.2009.07075

Downloads

Published

2023-01-07

Issue

Section

Research Article

How to Cite

1.
Kavuncuoğlu D, Koşan Z, Yılmaz S, Vançelik S. Health literacy levels and affecting factors among adults in Northeast Anatolia: Health literacy levels of adults. J Surg Med [Internet]. 2023 Jan. 7 [cited 2024 May 25];7(1):20-5. Available from: https://jsurgmed.com/article/view/1062817