What do we know about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines? A cross-sectional questionnaire evaluated by midwives and nurses
Keywords:Cervical cancer, Human Papilloma Virus, Screening methods, Vaccination
Background/Aim: Cervical cancer is a preventable disease by appropriate screening programs, treatment of pre-invasive lesions, and vaccination. Thus, the knowledge of healthcare providers about this issue is crucial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of nurses and midwives who were working in the obstetrics and gynecology department about cervical cancer, screening programs, and human papillomavirus vaccination. Methods: The questionnaire comprising 17 questions about cervical cancer, screening programs, and the human papillomavirus that was created by the authors, was applied to midwives and nurses working in Bursa online. All participants were informed about the answers, cervical cancer and HPV vaccines adequately after finishing the questionnaire. Results: The number of participants volunteering to answer the survey was 510. Of these, the rate of participants claiming that cervical cancer is a preventable disease was 97.4%. Approximately 74% of them answered that the reason for cancer was a virus, and 97.8% said that it is screened with a cervical smear. Sixty percent of the participants answered the onset age of the cervical cancer screening program wrongly. There is a great lack of knowledge about the type of vaccines, administration age, and the population vaccinated. Only 2% of the participants had been vaccinated and 34% had offered the vaccination to someone. Conclusion: Midwives and nurses of the obstetrics and gynecology department working in Bursa have sufficient knowledge about cervical cancer, whereas they have a lack of knowledge about screening programmes and human papillomavirus vaccination. It is crucial to make everyone know that cervical cancer is preventable and that eradication is possible by vaccination. Community-based information about the cervical cancer screening program and HPV vaccines is essential.
Gaffney DK, Hashibe M, Kepka D, Maurer KA, Werner TL. Too many women are dying from cervix cancer: Problems and solutions. Gynecologic oncology. 2018;151(3):547-54.
Sherris J, Herdman C, Elias C. Beyond our borders: cervical cancer in the developing world. Western Journal of Medicine. 2001;175(4):231.
Ankara: Health Ministry General Directorate of Public HealthCancer Department, Cancer statistics for 2016 Updated December 2019; cited 6.12.2020. Available from: https://hsgm.saglik.gov.tr/depo/birimler/kanserb/istatistik/Trkiye_Kanser_statistikleri_2016.pdf. 2019.
Schwarz E, Freese UK, Gissmann L, Mayer W, Roggenbuck B, Stremlau A, et al. Structure and transcription of human papillomavirus sequences in cervical carcinoma cells. Nature. 1985;314(6006):111-4.
Watson RA. Human papillomavirus: confronting the epidemic- a urologist’s perspective. Reviews in urology. 2005;7(3):135.
Sağlık Bakanlığı Halk Sağlığı Genel Müdürlüğü,Kanser Daire Başkanlığı, Serviks Kanseri Tarama Programı Ulusal Standartları [Updated Aralık 2020;cited 6.12.2020] Availablefrom:https://hsgm.saglik.gov.tr/tr/kanser-tarama-standartlari/listesi/serviks-kanseri-taramaprogram%C4%B1-ulusal-standartlar%C4%B1.
Lees BF, Erickson BK, Huh WK. Cervical cancer screening: evidence behind the guidelines. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2016;214(4):438-43.
Muñoz N, Bosch FX, De Sanjosé S, Herrero R, Castellsagué X, Shah KV, et al. Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer. New England journal of medicine. 2003;348(6):518-27.
Karaçor T, Sak S, Barut MU, Peker N, Sak ME. Comparison of Colposcopic Biopsy Results with High Risk HPV Positive Cytologic Results. Journal of Harran University Medical Faculty. 2019;16(3):540-44.
İncebiyik A. Human Papılloma Virus Vaccines: Overview. Journal of Harran University Medical Faculty. 2012;9(2):68-70.
Jemal A, Simard EP, Dorell C, Noone A-M, Markowitz LE, Kohler B, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2009, featuring the burden and trends in human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated cancers and HPV vaccination coverage levels. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2013;105(3):175-201.
Hilton S, Hunt K, Langan M, Bedford H, Petticrew M. Newsprint media representations of the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme for cervical cancer prevention in the UK. Soc Sci Med. 2010;70(6):942-950.
Gilmour S, Kanda M, Kusumi E, Tanimoto T, Kami M, Shibuya K. HPV vaccination programme in Japan. The lancet. 2013;382(9894):768.
Brotherton JM, Fridman M, May CL, Chappell G, Saville AM, Gertig DM. Early effect of the HPV vaccination programme on cervical abnormalities in Victoria, Australia: an ecological study. The Lancet. 2011;377(9783):2085-92.
Schiffman M, Castle PE, Jeronimo J, Rodriguez AC, Wacholder S. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. The Lancet. 2007;370(9590):890-907.
Cates Jr W. Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. American Social Health Association Panel. Sexually transmitted diseases. 1999;26(4 Suppl):2-7.
Eke RN, Sezik HA, Özen M. Are female doctors aware of cervical cancer? Tepecik Study and Research Journal. 2016;26(1):53-7.
Özçam H, Çimen G, Uzunçakmak C, Aydın S, Özcan T, Boran B. Evaluation of the Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior of Female Health Workers about Breast Cancer, Cervical Cancer, and Routine Screening Tests. Istanbul Medical Journal. 2014;15(3):154-60.
Can H, Öztürk Kılıç Y, Güçlü YA, Öztürk F, Demir Ş. cervical cancer awareness of female health employess. İzmir Tepecik Teaching Hospital journal. 2010;20(2):77-84.
Öztürk Y, Gürsoy E. Obstacles Preventing Women from Having Pap Smear Screening Test. JACSD. 2018;14:1-21.
Işık O, Çelik M, Keten HS, Dalgacı AF, Yıldırım F. Determination of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors of female physicians about Pap smear test. Çukurova Med J. 2016;41(2):291-8.
Stanley M. HPV-immune response to infection and vaccination. Infectious agents and cancer. 2010;5(1):19.
Lehtinen M, Paavonen J, Wheeler CM, Jaisamrarn U, Garland SM, Castellsagué X, et al. Overall efficacy of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against grade 3 or greater cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: 4-year end-of-study analysis of the randomised, double-blind PATRICIA trial. The lancet oncology. 2012;13(1):89-99.
Apter D, Wheeler CM, Paavonen J, Castellsagué X, Garland SM, Skinner SR, et al. Efficacy of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 (HPV-16/18) AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer in young women: final event-driven analysis of the randomized, double-blind PATRICIA trial. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2015;22(4):361-73.
Control CfD, Prevention. FDA licensure of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4, Gardasil) for use in males and guidance from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morbidity and mortality weekly report. 2010;59(20):630.
Organization WH. Human papillomavirus vaccines: WHO position paper, October 2014. Weekly Epidemiological Record= Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire. 2014;89(43):465-91.
Bonde U, Joergensen JS, Lamont RF, Mogensen O. Is HPV vaccination in pregnancy safe? Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 2016;12(8):1960-4.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Fatma Tuba Engindeniz, Deniz Simsek, Burcu Dinçgez
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Most read articles by the same author(s)
- Deniz Simsek, Ahmet Demirci, Burcu Dinçgez Çakmak, The risk factors and maternal adverse outcomes of stillbirth , Journal of Surgery and Medicine: Vol. 5 No. 1 (2021):