Acute and chronic invasive fungal sinusitis and imaging features: A review



Fungal sinusitis, Magnetic resonance imaging, Computed tomography


Fungal sinusitis is an infrequent disease that happens in immunosuppressed patients. Although acute and chronic invasive fungal sinusitis are pathologies with different clinical features and radiological imaging findings, mortality and morbidity rates are similarly high in patients. Therefore, early identification and offensive treatment are crucial. The use of diagnostic methods and the correct interpretation of imaging findings help to prevent fatal outcomes.


Download data is not yet available.


Fokkens WJ, Lund VJ, Mullol J, Bachert C, Alobid I, Baroody F, et al. EPOS 2012: European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps 2012. A summary for otorhinolaryngologists. Rhinology. 2012 Mar;50(1):1-12. doi: 10.4193/Rhino12.000. PMID: 22469599.

Nocon CC, Baroody FM. Acute rhinosinusitis in children. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2014 Jun;14(6):443. doi: 10.1007/s11882-014-0443-7. PMID: 24700347; PMCID: PMC7088858.

Bazan C 3rd, Rinaldi MG, Rauch RR, Jinkins JR. Fungal infections of the brain. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 1991;1:57–88.

Watkinson JC, Clarke RW. Scott-Brown’s Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery: Volume 1: Basic Sciences, Endocrine Surgery, Rhinology; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2018.

Montone KT. Pathology of Fungal Rhinosinusitis: A Review. Head Neck Pathol. 2016 Mar;10(1):40-6. doi: 10.1007/s12105-016-0690-0. Epub 2016 Feb 1. PMID: 26830404; PMCID: PMC4746136.

Watkinson, J.C.; Clarke, R.W. Scott-Brown’s Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery: Volume 1: Basic Sciences, Endocrine Surgery, Rhinology; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2018.

Reid JR. Complications of pediatric paranasal sinusitis. Pediatr Radiol. 2004 Dec;34(12):933-42. doi: 10.1007/s00247-004-1252-2. Epub 2004 Jul 27. PMID: 15278322.

Cornelius RS, Martin J, Wippold FJ 2nd, Aiken AH, Angtuaco EJ, Berger KL, et al. ACR appropriateness criteria sinonasal disease. J Am Coll Radiol. 2013 Apr;10(4):241-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jacr.2013.01.001. Epub 2013 Feb 16. PMID: 23420025.

Fatterpekar G, Mukherji S, Arbealez A, Maheshwari S, Castillo M. Fungal diseases of the paranasal sinuses. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 1999 Dec;20(6):391-401. doi: 10.1016/s0887-2171(99)90023-9. PMID: 10634589.

Aribandi M, McCoy VA, Bazan C 3rd. Imaging features of invasive and noninvasive fungal sinusitis: a review. Radiographics. 2007 Sep-Oct;27(5):1283-96. doi: 10.1148/rg.275065189. PMID: 17848691.

Zeifer B. Pediatric sinonasal imaging: normal anatomy and inflammatory disease. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2000 Feb;10(1):137-59, ix. PMID: 10658159.

Iida E, Anzai Y. Imaging of Paranasal Sinuses and Anterior Skull Base and Relevant Anatomic Variations. Radiol Clin North Am. 2017 Jan;55(1):31-52. doi: 10.1016/j.rcl.2016.08.009. Epub 2016 Oct 25. PMID: 27890187.

Gillespie MB, O'Malley BW Jr, Francis HW. An approach to fulminant invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in the immunocompromised host. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998 May;124(5):520-6. doi: 10.1001/archotol.124.5.520. PMID: 9604977.

Groppo ER, El-Sayed IH, Aiken AH, Glastonbury CM. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of acute invasive fungal sinusitis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011 Oct;137(10):1005-10. doi: 10.1001/archoto.2011.170. PMID: 22006778.

Yakirevitch A, Barg AA, Bedrin L, Primov-Fever A, Wolf M, Migirov L. Acute Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis in Children With Hematologic Malignancies: Outcome of Surgical Treatment. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2015;32(8):568-75. doi: 10.3109/08880018.2015.1092058. Epub 2015 Nov 11. PMID: 26558653.

Ni Mhurchu E, Ospina J, Janjua AS, Shewchuk JR, Vertinsky AT. Fungal Rhinosinusitis: A Radiological Review With Intraoperative Correlation. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2017 May;68(2):178-86. doi: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.12.009. PMID: 28438285.

DelGaudio JM, Swain RE Jr, Kingdom TT, Muller S, Hudgins PA. Computed tomographic findings in patients with invasive fungal sinusitis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003 Feb;129(2):236-40. doi: 10.1001/archotol.129.2.236. PMID: 12578456.

Silverman CS, Mancuso AA. Periantral soft-tissue infiltration and its relevance to the early detection of invasive fungal sinusitis: CT and MR findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1998 Feb;19(2):321-5. PMID: 9504486; PMCID: PMC8338170.

Craig JR. Updates in management of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2019 Feb;27(1):29-36. doi: 10.1097/MOO.0000000000000507. PMID: 30585877.

Thompson 3rd GR, Patterson TF. Fungal disease of the nose and paranasal sinuses. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129(2):321–6.

Stringer SP, Ryan MW. Chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2000; 33(2):375–87.

Reddy CE, Gupta AK, Singh P, Mann SB. Imaging of granulomatous and chronic invasive fungal sinusitis: comparison with allergic fungal sinusitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Aug;143(2):294-300. doi: 10.1016/j.otohns.2010.02.027. PMID: 20647138.

Gavito-Higuera J, Mullins CB, Ramos-Duran L, Sandoval H, Akle N, Figueroa R. Sinonasal Fungal Infections and Complications: A Pictorial Review. J Clin Imaging Sci. 2016 Jun 14;6:23. doi: 10.4103/2156-7514.184010. PMID: 27403401; PMCID: PMC4926542.

Yoon JH, Na DG, Byun HS, Koh YH, Chung SK, Dong HJ. Calcification in chronic maxillary sinusitis: comparison of CT findings with histopathologic results. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1999 Apr;20(4):571-4. PMID: 10319962; PMCID: PMC7056005.




How to Cite

Bulut HT, Kaplan E, Çoraplı M. Acute and chronic invasive fungal sinusitis and imaging features: A review. J Surg Med [Internet]. 2021 Dec. 1 [cited 2024 May 25];5(12):1214-7. Available from: